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ISSN: 1948-5964

Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

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Bindong Liu
Meharry Medical College

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Qianjun LI
University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Honglin Zhou
University of Pennsylvania

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Impact Factor 1.27*
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About the Journal


Impact Factor: 1.27*
Index Copernicus Value: 4.86
H-Factor: 4

The Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals (JAA) paves the way to discovery and development of antiviral drugs, compounds, and clinical methods to prevent viral infections. Importantly, JAA provides the opportunity to inform researchers, clinicians, and others working in the field of antiviral drugs and therapies. JAA is an internationally recognized journal for scientists involved in basic, applied, and clinical aspects of antiviral and antiretroviral research. It is known that many viruses emerge and re-emerge threatening both animal and human populations. Zoonotic viruses can cause extensive morbidity and mortality; however, preventive vaccines that provide protection are available for only a limited number of viruses.
The primary current therapeutic approach against viral diseases is to target viral components that are essential for replication. There are a number of disadvantages targeting viral components including the limited number of druggable viral targets because viruses have a small genome, as well as the rapid development of drug resistance. New drug therapies combine antivirals to increase efficacy and to avoid the development of drug resistant strains. These strategies are effective for viruses such as HIV, but clearly there is a need to expand our drug arsenal to address the wide diversity of viruses. This pathway relies on alternative strategies for drug discovery, such as examining the virus-host interface.
High-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) technology is a platform-enabling technology that allows for rapid searching and validation of biologically relevant target genes in the host. RNAi can be used to silence each and every gene in a host to ask what genes are needed for virus replication. Perhaps the greatest challenge is identify and validate the host genes and pathways they intersect among all the interactions relevant to virus replication. Here, antiviral drugs targeting host genes/factors can be discovered that markedly expand the number of druggable targets that can be temporarily silenced to prevent virus replication. This genome-wide exploration of virus-host interactions allows for a paradigm change in drug discovery because it provides critical host gene/pathway information allowing for drug rescue and repurposing. This systems-based approach to antiviral drug discovery integrates multiple ‘-omics’ approaches because much is learned about host genes co-opted by the virus for metabolomics, and proteins usurped for viral protein trafficking and viral packaging (proteomics), and the like. This information helps to find drugs lacking undesired side effects, and uses a rational approach in drug screening.


Antivirals are a class of drugs which are used to treat viral infections. Currently available antiviral drugs target only main group of viruses that are: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. Most diseases caused by viruses tend to end without treatment and do not require antiviral therapy. The common antiviral drugs include: Acyclovir, Brivudine, Docosanol, Famciclovir, Idoxuridine, Penciclovir, Trifluridine, Valacyclovir, etc.

Related Journals of Antivirals
Journal of Antivirals and Antiretrovirals, Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy, Antiviral Research, Viral Immunology, Viral Hepatit Dergisi, Journal of Viral Hepatitis, Viral Proteases, Virology and mycology, Topics in antiviral medicine, Archives of Virology


Antiretroviral drugs are the drugs that are used to fight retrovirus infections which mainly include HIV. Different classes of antiretroviral drugs act on different stages of the HIV life cycle. A retrovirus is a single-stranded RNA virus with a DNA intermediate. Common antiretroviral drugs include: Lamivudine, Abacavir, Zidovudine, Stavudine, Didanosine, Emtricitabine, Tenofovir, etc.

Related Journals of Antiretrovirals
Journal of Antivirals and Antiretrovirals, Antiretroviral Therapy Journal, Viral Immunology, Virology & Antiviral Research, Viral Hepatit Dergisi, Journal of Viral Hepatitis, Viral Proteases, Virology and mycology, Topics in antiviral medicine


Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a retrovirus that causes AIDS. It comes under a subgroup lentivirus. HIV infests helper T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells and ultimately decreses the CD4+ T cell count. As the infection of HIV proceeds, it compromises, more and more, the immune system. HIV can be transmitted in many ways, such as vaginal, oral sex, anal sex, blood transfusion, and contaminated hypodermic needles.

Related Journals of HIV
HIV & Retro Virus, Journal of AIDS and HIV Research, The Lancet HIV, Online First, Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services, HIV/AIDS Journals, Current HIV Research, Current HIV/AIDS Reports, Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS


Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is caused by the infection of HIV. It is indicated when CD4+ T cell count is below 200 cells per µL. Till now there is no cure for the HIV. As the infection proceeds, individual becomes more and more weak and ultimately dies. Opportunistic infections are the main cause of the death in HIV infection.

Related Journals of AIDS
HIV & AIDS Review, HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care, Journal of AIDS and Clinical Research, Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care, Open AIDS Journal, African Journal of AIDS Research, AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, AIDS Research and Therapy

Viral Immunity

Immunity that is developed against virus infections is known as viral immunity. It is developed by a variety of specific and non-specific mechanisms. An immune response against virus appears first during the primary infection of a susceptible, non-immune host/ individual and increases during reinfection of the same host. Interferons are the main protein responsible for viral immunity.

Related Journals of Viral Immunity
Journal of Viral Hepatitis, Viral Immunology, Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy, Viral Immunity, Viral Immunology, Topics in antiviral medicine

Viral Vaccine

Vaccines that are developed from viruses are viral vaccines. Viral vaccines contain either inactivated viruses or attenuated viruses. One of the most common examples of viral vaccine is MMR (mumps, measles and rubella) vaccine. Inactivated or killed viral vaccines contain viruses, which have lost their ability to replicate and in turn cause disease.

Related Journals of Viral Vaccine
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, Viral Immunology, Expert Review of Vaccines, Viral Immunology, Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutic, Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination, Open Vaccine Journal


Bacteriophages are the viruses that infect and replicates within a bacterium. Bacteriophages firstly attach to the bacterium and then insert its genetic material inside the bacterium. After insertion, the genetic material of the virus particle gets attached to the genetic material of the bacteria and causes protein synthesis that lead to generation of many virus particles inside the bacterium.

Related Journals of Bacteriophages

Bacteriophage, Viral Immunology, Virology & Antiviral Research, Viral Proteases, clinical & microbiology Journal, International Journal of Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Journal of Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents


Also known as swine flu. It is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by the type A influenza virus. H1N1 spreads through coughing or sneezing. It can also spread by touching something that someone with H1N1 flu touched and then putting hands to our mouth or nose. The main symptoms of swine flu include fever, tiredness, lack of appetite, coughing and a sore throat.

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Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, Viral Immunology, Virology & Antiviral Research, Viral Immunology, Virology & Antiviral Research, Topics in antiviral medicine


Hepatitis is a medical condition that is defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. Viral hepatitis includes hepatitis A, B, C, D & E. Hepatitis is acute when it lasts less than six months and chronic when it persists longer. Out of which Hepatitis B is the most lethal one and can spread by sharing a needle when using street drugs. The virus also can pass from a mother to her newborn child at birth or soon afterward.

Related Journals of Hepatitis
Journal of Viral Hepatitis, Hepatitis Monthly, Viral Hepatitis Reviews, Current Hepatitis Reports, Hepatitis B Annual, Hot Topics in Viral Hepatitis

Interferons (IFNs)

They are a group of proteins that are made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria or parasites). They act as antiviral agents and modulate functions of the immune system. Interferons are of many types: IF α, IF β and IF γ. These interferons have been classified into two types: type I includes the alpha and beta forms, and type II consists of the gamma form. Type I interferons can be produced by almost any cell upon stimulation by a virus; their primary function is to induce viral resistance in cells. Type II interferon is secreted only by natural killer cells and T lymphocytes; its main purpose is to signal the immune system to respond to infectious agents or cancerous growth.

Related Journals of Interferons
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research, Interferons, Viral Immunology, Viral Immunology, Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination,Virology & Antiviral Research, Viral Immunology

Antiretroviral Therapy

Standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) consists of the combination of at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to greatly suppress the HIV virus and stop the progression of HIV disease. These drugs do not kill or cure the virus but, prevent the growth of the virus. The aim of antiretroviral treatment is to keep the amount of HIV in the body at a low level. This stops any weakening of the immune system and allows it to recover from any damage that HIV might have caused.

Related Journals of Antiretroviral Therapy
Journal of Antivirals and Antiretrovirals, Antiretroviral Therapy, Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy,Virology & Antiviral Research, Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy, Molecular Therapy

Viral Vectors

Viral vectors are the commonly used tool used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells. Delivery of genes by a virus is termed as transduction and the infected cells are described as transduced. Viral Vectors are widely used in gene therapy. Viruses can usually infect more than one type of cell. Thus, when viral vectors are used to carry genes into the body, they might infect healthy cells as well as cancer cells.

Related Journals of Viral Vectors
Parasites and Vectors, Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, Journal of Vector Ecology, Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Journal of Hepatitis Research

Cross Infection Control

Cross infection is the transfer of harmful microorganisms from one person to other. The spread of infections can occur between people, pieces of equipment, or within the body. Aseptic technique is a common process used to properly sterilize equipment and thus preventing the cross infection. The most common are nosocomial cross infections, which are acquired at a hospital or other healthcare facilities such as outpatient clinics.

Related Journals of Cross Infection Control
American Journal of Infection Control, Hospital Infection Control, Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, Infectious Agents and Cancer, Infectious Disease Reports, Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice

Combination Therapy

Combination therapy is a wide term for the use of multiple medications/therapies, to fight the complex infections. Some common conditions treated with combination therapy include tuberculosis, leprosy, cancer, malaria and HIV/AIDS. Combination therapy helps in preventing drug resistance. For some cancers, the best approach is a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery or radiation therapy treats cancer that is confined locally, while chemotherapy also kills the cancer cells that have spread to distant sites.

Related Journals of Combination Therapy
AIDS Research and Therapy, Alzheimer's Research and Therapy, Annals of Cancer Research and Therapy, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy

Clinical Virology

Clinical virology is a branch of medicine which deals with isolating and characterizing several viruses that are responsible for human diseases. It mainly deals with cell cultures, serological, biochemical and molecular studies. This field is very useful in knowing the epidemiology and spreading of viral diseases. By knowing the modes of transmission, effective treatment strategies can be invented/discovered.

Related Journals of Clinical Virology
Journal of Clinical Virology, Chinese journal of experimental and clinical virology, Medical virology, Advances in Tumor Virology, Journal of Medical Virology


It is defined as study or retrovirus. Retrovirus is a virus that is composed not of DNA but of RNA. Retroviruses have an enzyme, known as reverse transcriptase, which gives them the unique property of transcribing their RNA into DNA after entering a cell. The retroviral DNA can then integrate into the chromosomal DNA of the host cell and get expressed there.

Related Journals of Retrovirology
Retrovirology, Journal of General Virology, Archives of Virology, Advances in Virology, Romanian journal of virology, Journal of Medical Virology

Emerging Viral Diseases

Viruses quickly adapt to and exploit the varying conditions because they have polymerase enzyme that helps in viral replication. Emerging viral disease is a major threat to global health. Due to rapid mutation and adaptation to changing environment several new viral diseases and emerging and causing human illness.

Related Journals of Emerging Viral Diseases
Clinical Infectious Diseases, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Digestive Diseases and Sciences, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Protease Inhibitors

It is a class of antiviral drug that are used in the treatment of various viral diseases. Protease inhibitors bind to viral protease (a type of viral protein) and prevent proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles. Some of the common examples of these agents are: Simeprevir, Boceprevir, Telaprevir, Ritonavir, Fosamprenavir, Nelfinavir, etc.

Related Journals of Protease Inhibitors
Viral Proteases, Proteins: Structure, Function and Genetics, Protein and Cell, Protein Expression and Purification, Archives of Virology, Advances in Virology, Romanian journal of virology, Journal of Medical Virology

OMICS International Organizes 1000+ Conferences every Year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific societies and publishes 700+ scholarly open access journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members

Welcome to the Journal of Antivirals and Antiretrovirals (JAA): An open-access, multidisciplinary journal for the discovery and development of antiviral drugs. I welcome you to a truly interdisciplinary journal which attracts the interest of scientists from various fields such as systems biology, chemistry, virology, and the clinical sciences.
As the Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals, I believe the strength of this open access journal is determined by the quality of manuscripts that it receives, and by the assembly of its editorial board that must encourage contributions from leading investigators. As JAA is an open-access, multidisciplinary journal for the discovery and development of antiviral drugs, it allows for rigorous review and rapid publication without unnecessary delay or expense. I expect JAA to become a venue for top-quality manuscripts and look forward to reading your contributions. Best.


*Unofficial 2014 Impact Factor was established by dividing the number of articles published in 2012 and 2013 with the number of times they are cited in 2014 based on Google search and the Scholar Citation Index database. If ‘X’ is the total number of articles published in 2012 and 2013, and ‘Y’ is the number of times these articles were cited in indexed journals during 2014 than, impact factor = Y/X


Recently published articles

Hepatitis E Virus in Human: The Current Status in Europe

Daniele Lapa, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, and Anna Rosa Garbuglia

Modelling Effective Antiretroviral Therapy that Inhibits HIV Production in the Liver

Hasifa Nampala, Livingstone S Luboobi, Joseph YT Mugisha, Celestino Obua, Matylda Jablonska-Sabuka and Matti Heilio

A Comparative Study of Health Related-Quality of Life Among HIV Patients on Pre-HAART and HAART in Uyo South-South Nigeria

Olugbemi Oluseyi Motilewa, Uwemedimbuk Smart Ekanem, Adedeji Onayade and Salami S Sule

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