Impact Factor: 1.27*
Index Copernicus Value: 4.86
The Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals (JAA) paves the way to discovery and development of antiviral drugs, compounds, and clinical methods to prevent viral infections. Importantly, JAA provides the opportunity to inform researchers, clinicians, and others working in the field of antiviral drugs and therapies. JAA is an internationally recognized journal for scientists involved in basic, applied, and clinical aspects of antiviral and antiretroviral research. It is known that many viruses emerge and re-emerge threatening both animal and human populations. Zoonotic viruses can cause extensive morbidity and mortality; however, preventive vaccines that provide protection are available for only a limited number of viruses.
The primary current therapeutic approach against viral diseases is to target viral components that are essential for replication. There are a number of disadvantages targeting viral components including the limited number of druggable viral targets because viruses have a small genome, as well as the rapid development of drug resistance. New drug therapies combine antivirals to increase efficacy and to avoid the development of drug resistant strains. These strategies are effective for viruses such as HIV, but clearly there is a need to expand our drug arsenal to address the wide diversity of viruses. This pathway relies on alternative strategies for drug discovery, such as examining the virus-host interface.
High-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) technology is a platform-enabling technology that allows for rapid searching and validation of biologically relevant target genes in the host. RNAi can be used to silence each and every gene in a host to ask what genes are needed for virus replication. Perhaps the greatest challenge is identify and validate the host genes and pathways they intersect among all the interactions relevant to virus replication. Here, antiviral drugs targeting host genes/factors can be discovered that markedly expand the number of druggable targets that can be temporarily silenced to prevent virus replication. This genome-wide exploration of virus-host interactions allows for a paradigm change in drug discovery because it provides critical host gene/pathway information allowing for drug rescue and repurposing. This systems-based approach to antiviral drug discovery integrates multiple ‘-omics’ approaches because much is learned about host genes co-opted by the virus for metabolomics, and proteins usurped for viral protein trafficking and viral packaging (proteomics), and the like. This information helps to find drugs lacking undesired side effects, and uses a rational approach in drug screening.
Antivirals are a class of drugs which are used to treat viral infections. Currently available antiviral drugs target only main group of viruses that are: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. Most diseases caused by viruses tend to end without treatment and do not require antiviral therapy. The common antiviral drugs include: Acyclovir, Brivudine, Docosanol, Famciclovir, Idoxuridine, Penciclovir, Trifluridine, Valacyclovir, etc.
Antiretroviral drugs are the drugs that are used to fight retrovirus infections which mainly include HIV. Different classes of antiretroviral drugs act on different stages of the HIV life cycle. A retrovirus is a single-stranded RNA virus with a DNA intermediate. Common antiretroviral drugs include: Lamivudine, Abacavir, Zidovudine, Stavudine, Didanosine, Emtricitabine, Tenofovir, etc.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a retrovirus that causes AIDS. It comes under a subgroup lentivirus. HIV infests helper T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells and ultimately decreses the CD4+ T cell count. As the infection of HIV proceeds, it compromises, more and more, the immune system. HIV can be transmitted in many ways, such as vaginal, oral sex, anal sex, blood transfusion, and contaminated hypodermic needles.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is caused by the infection of HIV. It is indicated when CD4+ T cell count is below 200 cells per µL. Till now there is no cure for the HIV. As the infection proceeds, individual becomes more and more weak and ultimately dies. Opportunistic infections are the main cause of the death in HIV infection.
Immunity that is developed against virus infections is known as viral immunity. It is developed by a variety of specific and non-specific mechanisms. An immune response against virus appears first during the primary infection of a susceptible, non-immune host/ individual and increases during reinfection of the same host. Interferons are the main protein responsible for viral immunity.
Vaccines that are developed from viruses are viral vaccines. Viral vaccines contain either inactivated viruses or attenuated viruses. One of the most common examples of viral vaccine is MMR (mumps, measles and rubella) vaccine. Inactivated or killed viral vaccines contain viruses, which have lost their ability to replicate and in turn cause disease.
Bacteriophages are the viruses that infect and replicates within a bacterium. Bacteriophages firstly attach to the bacterium and then insert its genetic material inside the bacterium. After insertion, the genetic material of the virus particle gets attached to the genetic material of the bacteria and causes protein synthesis that lead to generation of many virus particles inside the bacterium.
Also known as swine flu. It is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by the type A influenza virus. H1N1 spreads through coughing or sneezing. It can also spread by touching something that someone with H1N1 flu touched and then putting hands to our mouth or nose. The main symptoms of swine flu include fever, tiredness, lack of appetite, coughing and a sore throat.
Hepatitis is a medical condition that is defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. Viral hepatitis includes hepatitis A, B, C, D & E. Hepatitis is acute when it lasts less than six months and chronic when it persists longer. Out of which Hepatitis B is the most lethal one and can spread by sharing a needle when using street drugs. The virus also can pass from a mother to her newborn child at birth or soon afterward.
They are a group of proteins that are made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria or parasites). They act as antiviral agents and modulate functions of the immune system. Interferons are of many types: IF α, IF β and IF γ. These interferons have been classified into two types: type I includes the alpha and beta forms, and type II consists of the gamma form. Type I interferons can be produced by almost any cell upon stimulation by a virus; their primary function is to induce viral resistance in cells. Type II interferon is secreted only by natural killer cells and T lymphocytes; its main purpose is to signal the immune system to respond to infectious agents or cancerous growth.
Standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) consists of the combination of at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to greatly suppress the HIV virus and stop the progression of HIV disease. These drugs do not kill or cure the virus but, prevent the growth of the virus. The aim of antiretroviral treatment is to keep the amount of HIV in the body at a low level. This stops any weakening of the immune system and allows it to recover from any damage that HIV might have caused.
Viral vectors are the commonly used tool used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells. Delivery of genes by a virus is termed as transduction and the infected cells are described as transduced. Viral Vectors are widely used in gene therapy. Viruses can usually infect more than one type of cell. Thus, when viral vectors are used to carry genes into the body, they might infect healthy cells as well as cancer cells.
Cross infection is the transfer of harmful microorganisms from one person to other. The spread of infections can occur between people, pieces of equipment, or within the body. Aseptic technique is a common process used to properly sterilize equipment and thus preventing the cross infection. The most common are nosocomial cross infections, which are acquired at a hospital or other healthcare facilities such as outpatient clinics.
Combination therapy is a wide term for the use of multiple medications/therapies, to fight the complex infections. Some common conditions treated with combination therapy include tuberculosis, leprosy, cancer, malaria and HIV/AIDS. Combination therapy helps in preventing drug resistance. For some cancers, the best approach is a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery or radiation therapy treats cancer that is confined locally, while chemotherapy also kills the cancer cells that have spread to distant sites.
Clinical virology is a branch of medicine which deals with isolating and characterizing several viruses that are responsible for human diseases. It mainly deals with cell cultures, serological, biochemical and molecular studies. This field is very useful in knowing the epidemiology and spreading of viral diseases. By knowing the modes of transmission, effective treatment strategies can be invented/discovered.
It is defined as study or retrovirus. Retrovirus is a virus that is composed not of DNA but of RNA. Retroviruses have an enzyme, known as reverse transcriptase, which gives them the unique property of transcribing their RNA into DNA after entering a cell. The retroviral DNA can then integrate into the chromosomal DNA of the host cell and get expressed there.
Viruses quickly adapt to and exploit the varying conditions because they have polymerase enzyme that helps in viral replication. Emerging viral disease is a major threat to global health. Due to rapid mutation and adaptation to changing environment several new viral diseases and emerging and causing human illness.
It is a class of antiviral drug that are used in the treatment of various viral diseases. Protease inhibitors bind to viral protease (a type of viral protein) and prevent proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles. Some of the common examples of these agents are: Simeprevir, Boceprevir, Telaprevir, Ritonavir, Fosamprenavir, Nelfinavir, etc.
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Welcome to the Journal of Antivirals and Antiretrovirals (JAA): An open-access, multidisciplinary journal for the discovery and development of antiviral drugs. I welcome you to a truly interdisciplinary journal which attracts the interest of scientists from various fields such as systems biology, chemistry, virology, and the clinical sciences.
As the Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals, I believe the strength of this open access journal is determined by the quality of manuscripts that it receives, and by the assembly of its editorial board that must encourage contributions from leading investigators. As JAA is an open-access, multidisciplinary journal for the discovery and development of antiviral drugs, it allows for rigorous review and rapid publication without unnecessary delay or expense. I expect JAA to become a venue for top-quality manuscripts and look forward to reading your contributions. Best.
*Unofficial 2014 Impact Factor was established by dividing the number of articles published in 2012 and 2013 with the number of times they are cited in 2014 based on Google search and the Scholar Citation Index database. If ‘X’ is the total number of articles published in 2012 and 2013, and ‘Y’ is the number of times these articles were cited in indexed journals during 2014 than, impact factor = Y/X