Virology & Mycology Infectious Diseases
» Journals
A
Accounting & Marketing
Addiction Research & Therapy
Advances in Automobile Engineering
Advances in Crop Science and Technology
Advances in Dairy Research
Advancements in Genetic Engineering
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
Advances in Robotics & Automation
Advance Research in Meteorological Sciences
Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
Aging Science
Agrotechnology
AIDS & Clinical Research
Allergy & Therapy
Alternative & Integrative Medicine
Air & Water borne Diseases
Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
Alzheimer’s Disease & Parkinsonism
Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
Anaplastology
Anatomy & Physiology
Andrology-Open Access
Anesthesia & Clinical Research
Angiology: Open Access
Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
Anthropology
Applied & Computational Mathematics
Applied Mechanical Engineering
Aquaculture Research & Development
Architectural Engineering Technology
Arthritis
Arts and Social Sciences Journal
Astrobiology & Outreach
Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
Autacoids
Autism-Open Access

B
Bacteriology & Parasitology
Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
Bioceramics Development and Applications
Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
Biochemistry & Pharmacology
Biochips & Tissue Chips
Biodiversity & Endangered Species
Bioenergetics: Open Access
Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
Biological Systems-Open Access
Biology and Medicine
Biometrics & Biostatistics
Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
Bioremediation & Biodegradation
Biosafety
Biosafety & Health Education
Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Biotechnology & Biomaterials
Bioterrorism & Biodefense
Blood Disorders & Transfusion
Blood & Lymph
Bone Marrow Research
Brain Disorders & Therapy
Business and Economics Journal
Business and Financial Affairs

C
Cancer Science & Therapy
Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
Cell & Developmental Biology
Cell Science & Therapy
Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
Chemical Sciences Journal
Chemotherapy: Open Access
Child and Adolescent Behavior
Chromatography & Separation Techniques
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Civil & Legal Sciences
Clinical & Cellular Immunology
Clinical Case Reports
Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Clinical & Experimental Pathology
Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
Clinical Research & Bioethics
Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
Clinical Toxicology
Clinical Trials
Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
Cloning  & Transgenesis
Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
Community Medicine & Health Education
Computer Science & Systems Biology
Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
Cytology & Histology
D
Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
Defense Management
Dentistry
Depression and Anxiety
Developing Drugs
Diabetes & Metabolism
Drug Designing
Drug Metabolism & Toxicology

E
Earth Science & Climatic Change
Ecosystem & Ecography
Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
Epidemiology: Open Access
Emergency Medicine: Open Access
Ergonomics
Electrical & Electronics
Enzyme Engineering
Entrepreneurship & Organization Management

F
Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
Fermentation Technology
Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
Fisheries & Livestock Production
Food Processing & Technology
Forensic Research
Forest Research: Open Access

G
Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
General Medicine
Gene Technology
Geography & Natural Disasters
Geology & Geosciences
Geophysics & Remote Sensing
Gerontology & Geriatric Research
Global Economics
Glycobiology
Glycomics & Lipidomics
Gynecology& Obstetrics

H
Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
Hair : Therapy & Transplantation
Health & Medical Informatics
Hereditary Genetics
Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
Horticulture
Hotel & Business Management
Human Genetics & Embryology
Hydrology: Current Research
Hypertension- Open Access

I
Industrial Engineering & Management
Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
Information Technology & Software Engineering
Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Integrative Oncology
Internal Medicine
International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
International Journal of Genomic Medicine
International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

L
Liver
Leukemia

M
Marine Science: Research & Development
Mass Communication & Journalism
Material Sciences & Engineering
Medicinal Chemistry
Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
Medical Diganostic Methods
Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
Medical & Surgical Urology
Membrane Science & Technology
Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolomics:Open Access
Microbial & Biochemical Technology
Molecular Biology
Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
Molecular and Genetic Medicine
Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
Modern Chemistry & Applications
Mycobacterial Diseases
N
Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
Natural Products Chemistry & Research
Neonatal Biology
Nephrology & Therapeutics
Neurology & Neurophysiology
Novel Physiotherapies
Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
Neurological Disorders
Nutrition & Food Sciences
Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
Nursing & Care

0
Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
Oceanography-Open Access
OMICS Journal of Radiology
Osteoporosis and Physical Activity
Oral Health and Dental Management
Oral Hygiene & Health
Biological Systems- Open Access
Organic Chemistry: Current Research
Orthopedic & Muscular System: Current Research
Otolaryngology

P
Pain & Relief 
Palliative Care  & Medicine
Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
Pediatrics & Therapeutics
Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access
Pharmacovigilance
Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
Plant Pathology & Microbiology
Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
political Sciences & public affairs
Pollution Effects & Control
Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
Powder Metallurgy & Mining
Primatology
Primary Health Care: Open Access  
Probiotics & Health
Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
Psychology & Psychotherapy
Psychological Abnormalities in Children
Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine

R
Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
Rheumatology: Current Research
Rice Research: Open Access

S
Sleep Disorders & Therapy
Socialomics
Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
Spine
Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Steroids & Hormonal Science
Stock & Forex Trading
Single Cell Biology
Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
Surgery: Current Research

T
Telecommunications System & Management
Textile Science & Engineering
Theoretical and Computational Chemistry: Open Access
Thermodynamics & Catalysis
Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
Tissue Science & Engineering
Translational Medicine
Transplantation Technologies & Research
Trauma & Treatment
Tropical Medicine and Surgery
Tourism & Hospitality

V
Vaccines & Vaccination
Vascular Medicine & surgery
Veterinary Science & Technology
Virology & Mycology
Vitamins & Minerals

W
Women's health Care

Y
Yoga & Physical Therapy
» Browse by Subjects
Clinical
AIDS & Clinical Research
Anesthesia & Clinical Research
Angiology
Cancer Science & Therapy
Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
Cell Science & Therapy
Chemotherapy
Child & Adolescent Behavior
Clinical & Cellular Immunology
Clinical Case Reports
Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
Clinical & Experimental Pathology
Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
Clinical Research & Bioethics
Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
Clinical Toxicology
Clinical Trials
Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
Cytology & Histology
Forensic Research
Integrative Oncology
Neurology & Neurophysiology
Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Transplantation Technologies & Research

Pharmaceutical Sciences
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
Biochemical Pharmacology
Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
Developing Drugs
Drug Designing
Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access
Pharmacovigilance
Vaccines & Vaccination

Omics
Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
Ergonomics
Glycomics & Lipidomics
Health & Medical Informatics
Metabolomics:Open Access
OMICS Journal of Radiology
Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Transcriptomics

Chemistry
Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
Chemical Sciences Journal
Chromatography & Separation Techniques
Medicinal Chemistry
Modern Chemistry & Applications
Natural Products Chemistry & Research
Organic Chemistry
Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
Thermodynamics & Catalysis
Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access

Environmental
Advance Research in Meteorological Sciences
Anthropology
Aquaculture Research & Development
Astrobiology & Outreach
Biodiversity & Endangered Species
Earth Science & Climatic Change
Ecosystem & Ecography
Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
Fisheries & Livestock Production
Geography & Natural Disasters
Hydrology: Current Research
Oceanography-Open Access
Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
Pollution Effects & Control
Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences

Management
Accounting & Marketing
Arts and Social Sciences Journal
Business and Economics Journal
Business and Financial Affairs
Civil & Legal Sciences
Defense Management
Entrepreneurship& Organization Management
Hotel & Business Management
Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
Mass Communication & Journalism
political Sciences & public affairs
Stock & Forex Trading
Socialomics
Tourism & Hospitality

Life  Sciences
Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
Advancements in Genetic Engineering
Advances in Crop Science & Technology
Advances in Dairy Research
Aging Science
Agrotechnology
Air & Water Borne Diseases
Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
Autism-Open Access
Bacteriology & Parasitology
Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
Bioenergetics
Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
Biological Systems- Open Access
Biometrics & Biostatistics
Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
Bioremediation & Biodegradation
Biosafety
Biosafety & Health Education
Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Biotechnology & Biomaterials
Bioterrorism & Biodefense
Cell & Developmental Biology
Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
Enzyme Engineering
Fermentation Technology
Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
Forest Research: Open Access
Fungal Genomics and Biology
Gene Technology
Glycobiology
Horticulture
Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
Marine Science: Research & Development
Membrane Science & Technology
Microbial & Biochemical Technology
Molecular Biology
Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
Nutrition & Food Sciences
Plant Pathology & Microbiology
Primatology
Probiotics & Health
Rice Research: Open Access
Single Cell Biology
Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
Tissue Science & Engineering
Tropical Diseases
Transcriptomics: Open Access
Veterinary Science & Technology
Vitamins & Minerals
Virology & Mycology

Engineering
Advances in Automobile Engineering
Advances in Robotics & Automation
Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
Applied & Computational Mathematics
Applied Mechanical Engineering
Architectural Engineering Technology
Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
Biochips & Tissue Chips
Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Computer Science & Systems Biology
Electrical & Electronics
Food Processing & Technology
Geology and Geosciences
Geophysics & Remote sensing
Industrial Engineering & Management
Information Technology & Software Engineering
International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
Material Sciences & Engineering
Powder Metallurgy & Mining
Telecommunications System & Management
Textile Science & Engineering

Medical Sciences
Addiction Research & Therapy
Allergy & Therapy
Alternative & Integrative Medicine
Alzheimer’s Disease & Parkinsonism
Anaplastology
Anatomy & Physiology
Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
Andrology
Arthritis
Autacoids
Bioceramics Development and Applications
Biology and Medicine
Blood & Lymph
Blood Disorders & Transfusion
Bone Marrow Research
Brain Disorders & Therapy
Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
Cloning & Transgenesis
Community Medicine & Health Education
Dentistry
Depression and Anxiety
Diabetes & Metabolism
Emergency Medicine
Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
Epidemiology: Open Access
Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
General Medicine
General Practice
Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
Gynecology& Obstetrics
Global Economics
Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
Health Care : Current Reviews
Hereditary Genetics
Human Genetics & Embryology
Hypertension-Open Access
International Journal of Genomic Medicine
Internal Medicine
International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Leukemia
Liver
Medical & Surgical Urology
Medical Diagnostic Methods
Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
Metabolic Syndrome
Molecular Biology
Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
Molecular and Genetic Medicine
Mycobacterial Diseases
Neonatal Biology
Nephrology & Therapeutics
Neurological Disorders
Novel Physiotherapies
Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
Nursing & Care
Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
Oral Health and Dental Management
Oral Hygiene & Health
Orthopedic & Muscular System
Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
Otolaryngology
Pain & Relief
Palliative Care & Medicine
Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
Pediatrics & Therapeutics
Primary Health Care: Open Access
Psychological Abnormalities in Children
Psychology & Psychotherapy
Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
Rheumatology: Current Research
Sleep Disorders & Therapy
Spine
Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
Steroids & Hormonal Science
Surgery: Current Research
Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
Translational Medicine
Trauma & Treatment
Tropical Medicine and Surgery
Vascular Medicine & surgery
Women's Health Care
Yoga & Physical Therapy
» Conferences
 
Upcoming Conferences

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2ndInternational Conference on Translational Medicine, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA


International Conference and Exhibition on Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
2nd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA

International Conference on Genetic Engineering & Genetically Modified Organisms, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA

4th World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA

International Conference on Radiology and Imaging, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Dental & Oral Health, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA

International Conference on Oceanography, August 21-23, 2013 Orlando, USA

International Conference on Biodefense & Natural Disasters, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA

World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA

International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA

International Symposia on Entomology , September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA

2nd International Conference on Surgery & Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics , September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA

4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA

International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA

International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 07-09, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India

3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA

3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA

International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA

International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA

International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA

World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA

3rd World Congress on Virology, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA

International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA

3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India

2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India





Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized
2nd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
3rd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Animal & Dairy Sciences, July 23-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia Center City, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA

4th International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA


2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA

4th World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence, May 20-22, 2013 Beijing, China

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA

International Exhibition and Conference on Water Technologies, Environmental Technologies & Renewable Energy, February 13-14, 2013 Mumbai, India

International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity and Weight Management, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia, USA

International Summit on GMP & GCP: USA, Europe, Japan, Asia Pacific, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

International Conference on QA, QC and Validation, December 03-05, 2013 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

2nd International Conference on Nanotek and Expo, December 03-05, 2012 at DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

International Conference on Hair Transplantation & Trichology November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Anesthesia & Perioperative Care November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Toxicology Summit & Expo November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Surgery & Transplantation November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad, India

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India

2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India

International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Cosmetics November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India

Global Biofuels and Bioproducts Summit November 19-21, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Genetic Syndromes & GeneTherapy November 19-21, 2012 at Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics-2012, November 19–21, 2012, Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

2nd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics November12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Regenerative and Functional Medicine November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Aided Drug Design & QSAR October 29-31, 2012 Chicago, USA
International Conference on Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.

International Expo & Conference on Analytrix & HPLC October 22-24, 2012 Hilton Northbrook, Chicago, USA

International Conference and Expo on Material science and Engineering October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Clinical and Cellular Immunology October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology October 15-17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Otolaryngology October 15-17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International conference on Biothreats and Biodefense October 15-17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Tissue Science and Engineering October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Emerging Cell Therapies October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

Omics International Integrative Biology summit October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

3rdWorld Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism September 24-26, 2012 Marriott Convention Center, Hyderabad, India

2ndInternational Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology September 24-26, 2012, Hyderabad Marriott Hotel & Convention Centre , Hyderabad, India

International Conference on Translational medicine September 17-19,2012 Holiday Inn San Antonio, Texas, USA

3rd World Congress on Biotechnology September 13-15, 2012 HICC, Hyderabad, India

International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad, India

International Conference on Hotel and Business Management September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India

International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India

International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, USA

2nd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, TX, USA

International Conference on Central Nervous System September 5-7, 2012 Double by Hilton Philadephia, USA.

International Conference on Occupational Health and Safety Summit September 5-7, 2012 Philadelphia, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on pathology August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy-2012 August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy Aug 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

2nd World Congress on Virology Aug 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Nephrology and Therapeutics August 20-22, 2012, Chicago Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination August 20-22, 2012 at Chicago, USA.

World Congress on Earth Science & Climate Change 21–22 Aug 2012, Chicago, USA 20-22 Aug 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics Aug 13th–15th, 2012 Chicago, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Rheumatology and Therapeutics Aug 14–15, 2012 at Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.

3rd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 26-28, 2012 Marriott Hotel, Hyderabad, India

International Conference & Exhibition on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA

World Congress on Gastroenterology and Urology March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA

International Conference & Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA

2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha Marriott, USA

2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha Marriott, USA

2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha Marriott, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA

2nd World Congress on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA

2nd world Congress on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques 16-17 December 2011San franscico, USA.

2nd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism 6-8 December 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

International Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology 6-8 December 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research 29 Nov-1 Dec 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

2nd World Congress on Biotechnology 29 Nov -1 Dec 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Vaccines & Vaccination 22-24 November 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

2nd World Congress on Biomarkers & Clinical Research 12-14 September 2011 Baltimore, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Virology 5-7 September 2011 Baltimore, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs 6-7 September 2011 Baltimore, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Cancer Science & Therapy 15-17 August 2011 Las Vegas, USA.

International Conference on Clinical Research: Dermatology, Ophthalmology and Cardiology 5-6 July 2011 San Francisco, USA.

International Conference & Exhibition on Proteomics & Bioinformatics 6-8 June 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.

International Conference & Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 6-8 June 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.

2nd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit 6-8 June 2011 Las Vegas, USA.

International Conference on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems 7-8 June Las Vegas, USA.

World Congress on Biotechnology 21-23 March 2011 Hyderabad, India.

International Conference on Diabetes and Metabolism 13-14 December 2010 Santa Clara, USA.

International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research 22-23 November 2010 Santa Clara, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit 01 - 03 November 2010 Hyderabad, India

International Conference & Exhibition on Bioequivalence & Bioavailability 2010, Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 01-03, 2010.

Integrating Glycomics with other Omics in Cancer Detection and Diagnosis, January 19-20, 2010, Stanford University School of Medicine.

3rd World Congress of Gene-2009, December 1-7, 2009.

7th Annual World Congress of International Drug Discovery Science & Technology, October 22-25.

2nd WSA-2009, July 18-20, 2009

1st CCSB-2009, February 16-17, 2009

2nd PRICPS-4th AOHUPO, June 22-26, 2008

95th ISCA, January 5-8, 2008
Open Access PublicationsOpen Access Journals listInternational Scientific Conferences

Search :     Advanced Search 

HomeHome   |   Join Join   |   Contact Contact     

Gynecology & Obstetrics Journal Video  Gynecology & Obstetrics Journal Linkedin - Gynecology & Obstetrics Journal Twitter - Gynecology & Obstetrics Journal Facebook - Gynecology & Obstetrics Journal Gynecology & Obstetrics Journal Blog
Research Article Open Access
Aspirin and Warfarin are Associated with Improved Overall Survival in Medically Inoperable Endometrial Cancer Patients Treated with Radiation Therapy
1Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA
2Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA
3Gynecologic Oncology University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA
4Radiation Oncology University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA
*Corresponding author: Geraldine M Jacobson
Department of Radiation Oncology
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics
200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City
IA, 52242, USA
Tel: 319-353-7019
Fax: 319-356-1530
E-mail: geraldine-jacobson@uiowa.edu
 
Received November 02, 2011; Accepted January 19, 2012; Published January 25, 2012
 
Citation: Fornalik H, Goodheart MJ, Buekers TE, Geest KD, Jacobson GM (2012) Aspirin and Warfarin are Associated with Improved Overall Survival in Medically Inoperable Endometrial Cancer Patients Treated with Radiation Therapy. Gynecol Obstetric S4:002. doi:10.4172/2161-0932.S4-002
 
Copyright: © 2012 Fornalik H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
Abstract
 
Objective: To assess factors associated with improved survival of medically inoperable endometrial carcinoma.
 
Methods: Patients with endometrial cancer who were not surgical candidates, underwent primary radiation therapy. Data were collected from medical records Survival estimates were calculated and compared.
 
Results: Twenty-nine of 39 patients who underwent primary radiation therapy were considered medically inoperable. Median follow up was 19 months (range 3-66). Overall survival (OS) was 38% (11 out of 29). Progressionfree survival (PFS) was 34% (10 out of 29). The cancer-specific mortality was 14% (4 out 29). Fourteen of 18 deceased patients (78%) had no evidence of recurrent disease. A history of pulmonary embolism was associated with improved survival (Rate ratio of death 0.2; 95%CI, 0.01-0.98; p=0.046). Grade 3 tumors were associated with shorter survival, compared to combined grades 1 and 2 (Rate ratio of death 3.21; 95%CI, 1-8.76; p=0.05). The median OS in patients on aspirin or warfarin was 20 months (range 7-66), and 11 months (range 3-43) in patients who did not take aspirin or warfarin (Rate ratio of death: 0.35, 95%CI, 0.13-0.89; p=0.028).
 
Conclusion: Radiation therapy provides acceptable tumor control in patients with medically inoperable endometrial cancer. Aspirin or warfarin therapy may result in longer overall survival.
 
Keywords
 
Aspirin; Warfarin; Endometrial cancer; Radiation therapy
 
Introduction
 
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer with an estimated 42,160 new cases and 7,780 deaths occurring in 2009 [1]. Primary treatment consists of surgery and surgical staging. However, secondary to age, obesity and comorbidities approximately 3-9% of patients are at high risk for surgical complications and are considered medically inoperable [2]. These patients have been successfully treated with primary radiation therapy administered as brachytherapy alone or in combination with external beam radiation. Current clinical evidence supporting such therapy is based on case series collected by single institutions over a period of many years [2-6]. Studies did not report comorbidities in a uniform fashion and included patients who were treated with radiation therapy primarily because of advanced age, morbid obesity, or refusal of surgery. The purpose of this study is to present a single institution experience with primary radiation therapy in patients with endometrial carcinoma considered inoperable for medical reasons only. The unexpected finding of improved survival associated with usage of anticoagulants and anti-inflammatory medication is analyzed with respect to recent discoveries in the role of angiogenesis in cancer growth and metastasis. Clinical data supporting this approach in selected groups are reviewed.
 
Materials and Methods
 
Following approval by the Institutional Review Board, the medical records of all patients with endometrial cancer treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between February 2003 and April 2008 were reviewed. Only patients who received primary radiation therapy, and who were considered medically inoperable by their Gynecologic Oncologist were included in the analysis. Patients who received radiation therapy because of extreme obesity, refusal of surgery, advanced age, and patients with incomplete records were excluded. Data regarding medical history, current medication use, performance status, clinical stage and tumor histology were collected. When the performance status was not stated in the records, it was assigned based on available information. The Satariano co-morbidity index was calculated [7]. One point was given for each of the following: myocardial infarction, other types of heart disease, diabetes, other types of cancer, respiratory, gallbladder, and liver conditions. OS, PFS, and disease-specific survival were obtained on all patients.
 
Information on radiation therapy was collected. Treatment consisted of pelvic external beam radiation therapy, with subsequent high dose rate tandem and ovoid (T&O) brachytherapy or external beam boost. The external beam boost was delivered with either conformal fields or Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT).
 
Actuarial survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan Meier method. Associations between prognostic variables and survival were compared using the log-rank test and rate ratios, with a p – value < 0.05 considered significant. Rates of death were calculated as the number of deaths divided by the time at risk. A rate ratio is the rate of death in the group with the variable of interest, divided by rate of death in the group without it. Values >1 indicates a higher number of deaths in a group with the given risk factor. Forests’ plots with comparison of rate ratios were created using a published template [8]. The low number of subjects did not allow for meaningful multivariate analysis.
 
Results
 
Thirty-nine patients were identified who received primary radiation therapy for endometrial cancer. Six patients received radiation therapy primarily because of morbid obesity, advanced age, or refusal of surgery, and were excluded. Information was incomplete in 4 patients, leaving 29 patients eligible for analysis. The patient characteristics are presented in Table 1. Median age at diagnosis was 74 (range 36-95). Median body mass index (BMI) was 42 (range 17-66). The mean GOG performance score was 2.38 ± 1.47. Twenty seven patients were clinical stage I, one was stage II and one stage III. Median follow up was 19 months (range 3-66). OS was 38% (11 out of 29), PFS was 34% (10 out of 29). The cancer-specific mortality was 14% (4 out 29). Out of eighteen deceased patients, fourteen (78%) had no evidence of recurrence. Fourteen fatalities were related to medical conditions; only four resulted from cancer. Details of the radiation therapy are presented in Table 2. Four patients had recurrent disease, of these two had local recurrence, and two had distant metastasis. One patient with stage III had persistent disease. All but one patient (97%) were able to complete the prescribed treatment. This patient suffered an acute myocardial infarction during cardiac catheterization performed before brachytherapy. One patient had a rectal perforation 16 days after completion of her second T&O. She required colostomy and died of a stroke 23 months after the cancer diagnosis, with metastatic disease.
 
Table 1: Patient Characteristics.
 
Table 2: Radiation dose and modality.
 
Patients’ comorbidities and risk factors are listed in Figure 1. All listed conditions were present at the time of diagnosis of endometrial cancer. A trend in improved OS was observed in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), and in patients with medical conditions possibly associated with thrombosis (cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure and arrhythmia). Those results were statistically significant for a history of PE (Rate ratio of death 0.2 95%CI, 0.01-0.98; p=0.046) and the combined category of patients with a history of pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis (Rate ratio of death 0.2 95%CI, 0.01-0.98; p=0.046). History of DVT when analyzed separately also showed a much lower risk of death (Rate ratio 0.23), but results were not statistically significant (95%CI, 0.01-1.13, p=0.076), suggesting insufficient power to detect this relationship in such a small study. Patients with coronary artery disease listed here, were the ones without concomitant arrhythmia, history of congestive heart failure or history of myocardial infarction. Analysis of medications taken by patients at the time of cancer diagnosis revealed significantly improved overall survival in a group taking any one of the two antithrombotic drugs – warfarin or aspirin (Figure 2) (Rate ratio of death: 0.35, 95%CI, 0.13- 0.89). Survival curves comparison showed early separation and steady to increasing distance between the slopes (Figure 3). Overall survival was 56% (9 out of 16 aspirin or warfarin users) and 15% (2 out 13 non users). Aspirin was given at a dose of 81 mg for 44% of patients, and at a dose of 325 mg in the remaining 56%. The warfarin cumulative weekly dose ranged from 7 to 42 mg with a mean of 23 mg ± 15.7. INR data was not available for majority of patients. No patients took heparin products.
 
Figure 1: Patient co-morbidities and rate ratio of death.
 
Figure 2: Patient medications and rate ratio of death.
 
Figure 3: Survival and Aspirin/Warfarin usage.
 
The mean Satariano comorbidity index was 2.38 ± 1.47. There was no statistical difference in the mean score between the living and deceased (2.36 vs. 2.39 p=0.95) groups, or between patients on aspirin/ warfarin and a group not on those medications (2.19 vs. 2.61 p=0.45). Survival among patients with 0-1 score was longer than in a group with a higher index, but not statistically significant (mean: 25 vs. 19 months p=0.26).
 
Grade III tumors were associated with shorter survival as compared to combined grades 1 and 2 (Rate ratio of death 3.21 95%CI, 1-8.76). This result could partially be affected by our sole stage III patient, and below median survival of 10 months (persistent disease). The remaining five grade III patients died without evidence of disease with a median survival of 12 months for the entire group (range 3-28 months). There were three recurrences among eleven grade II patients (27%) and one among twelve grade I patients (8%). Of the 4 recurrences and cancerassociated deaths, 2 were on aspirin/warfarin and 2 were not.
 
Discussion
 
This study describes a group of patients with medically inoperable endometrial cancer. The criteria to diagnose “medical inoperability” has not been defined. This determination is usually established by Gynecologic Oncologists with, or without contribution from other specialties. This group of patients is very heterogenous with a variable number and complexity of comorbidities. Overall survival (OS) data reported in the literature reflects this variation, while disease-specific survival is very similar. Results range from 28% OS at 2 years for patients older than 75 from the Pittsburgh group [5], to 55% at 5 years in the same age group from St. Louis, to 78% at 5 years for patients younger than 75 from the same institution [3]. Although our results of 38% OS at 19 months appears to be similar, it is difficult to draw conclusions on how comparable the populations are. At UIHC the medically inoperable patients with endometrial cancer are older on average by 13 years than a comparable group undergoing surgery. In elderly populations the assessment of functional status by Karnofsky or the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG), scale does not seem to be as effective as in the adult group because comorbidities in the elderly may interfere with the performance status [9]. We selected Satariano index for two reasons: it is a well-established tool and it can be applied retrospectively. In a large study of breast cancer patients, individuals with a score of 3 or more had a 20-fold higher rate of mortality from causes other than breast cancer [7]. The Breast cancer population is similar to ours secondary with a relatively early stage at diagnosis, low recurrence rate and similar tumor interaction with steroidal hormones. Early studies on the Satariano index were subsequently validated in other populations and the index was adopted as a part of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) [9].
 
The strength of our data lies in the observation of improved survival with a history of any condition with thrombotic pathophysiology. Statistical significance was reached for history of PE and with the combined group with a history of either PE or DVT. This relationship is very strong since the ratio of death rate is only 0.2, and it was possible to observe it in such a small study.
 
The concept of anticoagulation in patients with cancer and no history of thrombosis have been evaluated in lung cancers, breast cancers and heterogenous groups of patients with solid tumors. Metaanalysis of eleven randomized clinical trials showed significantly decreased 1-year overall mortality with use of anticoagulation (RR 0.905, 95%CI, 0.847-0.967, p=0.003). [10]. Considered separately, only one study of 302 patients with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors (7 gynecological cases, 19 controls) was statistically significant, showing improved median survival following a 6 week course of subcutaneous nadroparin when compared to placebo (HR 0.75 95%CI, 0.59-0.96, p=0.021) [11]. In similar situations where patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with definitive radiation, anticoagulants (warfarin, clopidogrel or aspirin) were associated with improved biochemical control (PSA level) and decreased rate of distant metastasis at 4 years of follow up (1 vs. 5% p=0.0248). In this recently published retrospective study, overall survival at 4 years was no different (92.2% anticoagulation group vs. 90.3% control, p=0.884) [12].
 
Anticoagulation carries considerable risk of complications. In previously mentioned meta-analysis, warfarin was associated more with major bleeding than unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin (RR 2.979 p<0.0001 vs. 1.007 p=0.996 vs. 1.679 p=0.128 respectively) [10]. Low intensity treatment with warfarin (INR 1.4 to 2.8) had a comparable safety profile to aspirin in stroke secondary prevention trials in the general population [13]. There is mounting evidence that aspirin may play a role in cancer treatment. Literature has shown that aspirin can decrease the incidence of metastatic disease in adenocarcinoma via COX-2 inhibition [14] while improving cardiovascular outcomes via COX-1 [15]. COX-2 is related to tumor angiogenesis, growth, apoptosis, metastasis and local immunosupression [14]. Survivin, which is a COX-2 dependent protein, is critical for apoptosis resistance in non-small cell lung cancer [16]. Clinical evidence supports a dual effect of Aspirin on cancer patients. A recent study in endometrial cancer showed that expression of survivin, c-erbB2 and COX-2 correlates with tumor stage, grade, myometrial invasion and survival [17]. A retrospective cohort study of breast cancer patients enrolled in Nurses’ Health Study revealed decreased breast cancer mortality if aspirin was taken 2-5 times per week (RR 0.29 95%CI, 0.16-0.52), or 6-7 d per week (RR 0.36 95%CI 0.24-0.54). Overall mortality was also reduced, but to a lesser extent (RR 0.53 95%CI, 0.37-0.76 and RR 0.54 95%CI, 0.41-07, respectively; test for trend, p=0.004). This led investigators to conclude that therapeutic effect was driven by aspirin affecting breast cancer mortality [18]. A retrospective study on 1353 patients with non-small cell lung cancers after surgical resection showed more than 5 % (p=0.05) increased overall survival associated with taking aspirin [19].
 
Our data is similar to the literature in reporting significantly improved overall survival in studied populations without detecting clinical thrombosis. In a previously cited meta-analysis of RCT of prophylactic anticoagulants in cancer, only 5 studies report incidence of thromboembolism which ranged from 2 to 7% in the placebo group [11,20-22]. Contribution of thrombosis to death is suggested by frequent observation of pulmonary embolism in post mortem studies: 18.6% in 4077 autopsies carried out between 1979-1989 [23]. In our group, only 2 patients had documented thrombotic events after initiation of radiation treatment. Out of primary radiation treatment series, only one case series of HDR brachytherapy reports thrombotic complications.
 
Anticoagulants may not improve survival in all patients with cancer, but there appear to be certain cancer types that may benefit more from such treatment. It is possible that the overall survival difference in our study patients may be due to the impact of aspirin/ warfarin on co-morbid conditions and not necessarily its effect on the cancer. We propose that the use of aspirin/warfarin in this population should be further investigated.
 
A major limitation in a study of this type is the subjective determination of medical inoperability. We propose using the Satariano index to compare our data to other institutions.
 
In this group of medically inoperable patients with endometrial cancer, primary radiation provided acceptable tumor control. An unexpected finding was the association between aspirin or warfarin and longer overall survival.
 
References
 






















 
 
 
This article
DOWNLOAD
» XML (62 kB)
» PDF (1,612 kB)
»
Export citation
»
Blog this article
   
CONTRIBUTE
» Write a response
» Read other responses
» Publishing with OPG
   
SHARE
» E-mail this article
» Print this article
» Rights and permissions
   
Share
EXPLORE
Related article at
» Pubmed
» DOAJ
» Scholar Google
 
 
 
 
Untitled Document
| More
 
OMICS Publishing Group is the member of / publishing partner of/source content provider to
       
OMICS Publishing Group, An Open Access Publisher and Scientific Events Organizer for the Advancement of Science & Technology. All Published content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License
Please ensure that you are using the latest version of Adobe reader. If you do not have this software installed on your system, you can download the free Adobe Reader by simply clicking on the following link: http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html
Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version Copyright © 2013 OMICS Group, All Rights Reserved.