ISSN: 0974-276X
Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Biomarker Discovery and Drug Development: A Proteomics Approach

Arbab Khan and Asad U Khan*
Medical Microbiology and Molecular Biology laboratory, Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, A.M.U., Aligarh-202002, India
Corresponding Author : Dr. Asad U Khan
Medical Microbiology and Molecular Biology laboratory
Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit
A.M.U., Aligarh-202002, India
E-mail: asad.k@rediffmail.com
Received March 24, 2012; Accepted March 26, 2012; Published March 30, 2012
Citation: Khan A, Khan AU (2012) Biomarker Discovery and Drug Development: A Proteomics Approach. J Proteomics Bioinform 5: v-vi. doi:10.4172/jpb.10000e12
Copyright: © 2012 Khan A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Related article at
DownloadPubmed DownloadScholar Google

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics

A new era of proteomics has dawned owing to the completion and annotation of the human genome and new refinements in the techniques to study proteins on the large scale. Researchers all over the world are applying proteomics to gain a better understanding of disease pathogenesis, to discover new and reliable biomarkers for early detection of diseases and to accelerate drug development.
The dynamic nature of the proteome of cells (diseased) provides ample information for studying a disease at protein level, but to gather all the information from a cell requires implementation of multiple strategies and technologies [1]. Two traditionally used techniques in proteomics are two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Many improvements have been made in these techniques to make them more effective and informative. Moreover, other advanced non-gel-based techniques like protein chip technology, phage display, activity based assays, two hybrid assays, isotope coded affinity tagging are being used in disease proteomics.
Some recently developed strategies for classical proteome analysis are isotope coded affinity tagging (ICAT) and multidimensional protein identification technique (MudPIT). ICAT categorize and quantify all the proteins in the proteome. It is a very sensitive technique with high throughput. MudPIT is another method for classical proteome study. It is the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method which can be directly applied on crude samples. Functional analysis of proteome involves protein arrays, phage display methods and twohybrid systems. These techniques quantify proteins and also help in determining protein-protein interactions. Some of them form bridge between classical and functional approach, like activity based probes which analyze the active protein component of proteomes [2].
Proteomics is being extensively used to study molecular basis of various diseases and development of novel drugs with better understanding of targets. Substantial interest has been generated in identifying disease biomarkers. It is a molecule that indicates changes in the physiology of a cell under diseased state and hence can be used as a diagnostic tool, therapy guidance and prognosis monitoring of diseases [3]. Cancer biomarkers are a good example which is not only help in diagnosis of disease but also helps in determining different stages of cancer, studying therapy response and verification of clinical end points [4]. Impressive data can be collected by comparative analysis of disease tissue and its normal counterpart to identify protein with aberrant expression. The sera of the patients can also be screened for auto-antibodies against tumor antigens. Immune response against tumor cells in patients with cancer is being increasingly reported resulting in production of auto-antibodies against various intracellular and surface antigens. Identification of these antigens might help in cancer screening, diagnosis and immunotherapy against the disease. Lung cancer has been extensively studied using proteomic approach. Cytokeratin isoforms were reported to correlate with patient survival and oncoprotein 18 over expression was associated with
poor differentiation status in lung carcinoma [5,6]. Another type of cancer that has been studied is bladder tumor, including transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. Researchers have also concentrated on identification of biomarkers of breast cancer, ovarian cancer and colon cancer. A new technology, differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE), combined with LC/MS, has been claimed to be a powerful proteomic procedure for the molecular characterization of tumor develpoment and for the detection of tumorspecific biomarkers in esophageal scans cell cancer [7]. Moreover, proteome analysis has also been reported to provide insights into cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory and immune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and hepatitis.
Proteomics play an important role in drug development. All major pharmaceutical companies are implementing proteomic programs. As majority of drugs act by targeting proteins or they are protein themselves, proteomics along with bioinformatics can meet the needs of pharmaceutical industry in identifying new targets to understand insight of drug action. Bioinformatics is a tool that interprets biological information using computer-aided data. It offers algorithms for gene and protein identification, structure and function relationship predictions and functional interactions among proteins [8-10]. Information technology enables mining of DNA and protein sequence databases for similarities, screening of active compounds in silico by virtual screening and docking of analyses. Informatics enables easy optimization of leads in drug design, and the selection of pre-clinical candidates [9]. Growth in computing power and systematic databases has made such automated analyses possible [11].
Proteomic profiling technologies are evolving in a way to emphasize the need of increased sensitivity and high throughput. No technology can provide all the necessary information, so concurrent refinement of a number of techniques will be required for generation and interpretation of data necessary for understanding of processes involved in cell function and regulation. Thus, proteomics, particularly applied to drug discovery and disease proteomics, is evolving toward an increasingly interdisciplinary hunt that combines aspects of biology, chemistry, engineering and information science. Further improvements in these technologies will continue to drive the pursuit for better diagnostics and effective drug candidates.
References












Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
 
Share This Article
   
 
   
 
Relevant Topics
Disc Applications of Bioinformatics
Disc Bacterial transcriptome
Disc Bioinformatics Algorithms
Disc Bioinformatics Databases
Disc Bioinformatics Tools
Disc Cancer Pharmacogenomics
Disc Cancer Proteomics
Disc Clinical Pharmacogenomics
Disc Clinical Proteomics
Disc Cluster analysis
Disc Comparative genomics
Disc Comparative proteomics
Disc Comparative transcriptomics
Disc Computational drug design
Disc Current Proteomics
Disc Data algorithms
Disc Data mining applications in genomics
Disc Data mining applications in proteomics
Disc Data mining in drug discovery
Disc Data mining tools
Disc Data modelling and intellegence
Disc Data warehousing
Disc Drug Dosage Formulations
Disc Drug Toxicity and Efficacy
Disc Epigenetics
Disc Epigenomic studies
Disc Gene Expression profiling
Disc Gene polymorphism
Disc Genome annotation
Disc Genomic Targets
Disc Genomic data mining
Disc Genomic data warehousing
Disc Glycome
Disc Human Proteome Project Applications
Disc Immune Disorders
Disc Individualized Medicine
Disc Mapping of genomes
Disc Mass Spectrometry in Proteomics
Disc Meta genomics
Disc Metabolome
Disc Microarray
Disc Microarray Proteomics
Disc Molecular and Cellular Proteomics
Disc Mouse transcriptome
Disc Non coding MRNA
Disc Personalized Medicine Studies
Disc Pharmacoeconomics in Drug Development
Disc Pharmacogenetics
Disc Pharmacogenomic Biomarker
Disc Pharmacogenomics Applications
Disc Pharmacogenomics Future Medicine
Disc Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
Disc Pharmacogenomics for Patient Care
Disc Pharmacoproteomics in Drug development
Disc Profiling
Disc Protein Sequence Analysis
Disc Protein engineering
Disc Proteogenomics
Disc Proteome
Disc Proteome Profiling
Disc Proteomic Analysis
Disc Proteomic Biomarkers
Disc Proteomics Clinical Applications
Disc Proteomics Research
Disc Proteomics Science
Disc Proteomics and Pharmacodynamics
Disc Proteomics data warehousing
Disc Python for Bioinformatics
Disc Quantitative Proteomics
Disc RNA sequencing
Disc RNA sequencing and analysis
Disc Sequencing
Disc Small RNA Sequencing
Disc Statistical data mining
Disc Transcripotme
Disc Transcriptional Attenuation
Disc Transcriptional Regulation
Disc Transcriptome analysis
Disc Translational Medicine
 
Recommended Journals
Disc Transcriptomics Journal
Disc Pharmacogenomics Journal
Disc Data Mining Journal
  View More»
 
Recommended Conferences
Disc 6th Bioinformatics Conference
August 22-23, 2016 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Disc 7th International Conference and Expo on Proteomics
October 24-26, 2016 Rome, Italy
View More»
 
Article Tools
Disc Export citation
Disc Share/Blog this article
 
Article usage
  Total views: 11237
  [From(publication date):
March-2012 - May 30, 2016]
  Breakdown by view type
  HTML page views : 7503
  PDF downloads :3734
 
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

 
OMICS International Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
 
 
OMICS International Conferences 2016-17
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings
 
 

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2016 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version