Bacterial infections other than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis
Cirrhotic patients are immunocompromised with a high risk of infection. Proinflammatory cytokines and hemodynamic circulation derangement further facilitate the development of serious consequences of infections. Other than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, bacteremia and bacterial infections of other organ systems are frequently observed. Gram-negative enteric bacteria are the most common causative organism. Other bacterial infections, such as enterococci, Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Clostridium spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are more prevalent and more virulent. Generally, intravenous third generation cephalosporins are recommended as empirical antibiotic therapy. Increased incidences of gram-positive and drug-resistant organisms have been reported, particularly in hospital-acquired infections and in patients receiving quinolones prophylaxis. This review focuses upon epidemiology, microbiology, clinical features and treatment of infections in cirrhosis other than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, including pathogen-specific and liver disease-specific issues.