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Brain tumors are caused when abnormal cells are formed witin the brain. There are two types of tumors- malignant and benign tumors. The symptoms of a brain tumor depend on tumor size, type, and location. Symptoms may be caused when a tumor presses on a nerve or harms a part of the brain. It may be also caused when the tumor blocks the fluid that flows around the brain or when the brain swells because of the increase of fluid.
Journal of Brain Tumors & Neurooncology is an open access journal which covers different areas of brain tumors including tumor cells, brain tissue, neurofibromatosis, multiple endocrine neoplasia, meningioma, neuroblastoma, astrocytoma and brain neoplasm. The most common type of brain tumors are glioblastoma and glioma. A metastatic brain tumours are the cancer cells that develop in a body organ such as the lung can spread via direct extension, or through the bloodstream to other body organs such as the brain. Other types of brain tumors include skull metastasis, meningeal carcinomatosis, medulloblastoma and central neurocytoma.
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Intra cranial tumours may involve the brain or other structures. The tumours usually develop at any stage during early or middle adulthood but may develop at any stage. Some tumours are benign, but cause serious neurologic dysfunction or death. Primary tumours and secondary tumours are two types of brain tumours. Type of tumor varies somewhat by site and patient age.
Brain tumour is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. Unlike other tumours spread by local extension and rarely metastasize beyond the part of the brain where it originates. A brain tumour is considered malignant if it contains cancer cells. Brain tumors can develop at any age, but are most common in children between the ages of 3-12, and in adults aged 55-65.
Cancer cells that develop in a body organ such as the lung can spread via direct extension, or through the bloodstream to other body organs such as the brain. Tumors formed by such cancer cells that spread to other organs are called metastatic tumors. Metastatic brain cancer is a mass of cells that originated in another body organ and has spread into the brain tissue. Metastatic tumors in the brain are more common than primary brain tumors. They are usually named after the tissue or organ where the cancer first developed.
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Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder that disturbs cell growth in nervous system, causing tumors to form on nerve tissue. These tumors may develop anywhere in nervous system, including in brain, spinal cord and nerves. Neurofibromatosis is usually diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood. The tumours are usually benign but in some cases become malignant tumours.
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Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) also called glioblastoma, is a fast-growing glioma that develops from star-shaped glial cells called astrocytes and oligodendrocytes that support the health of the nerve cells within the brain. GBM is often referred to as a grade IV astrocytoma. These are the most invasive type of glial tumors, rapidly growing and commonly spreading into nearby brain tissue.
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Glioblastomas are the most common and aggressive primary brain tumours, have been called grow and go tumours. They don’t grow rapidly at a given site, they also move rapidly to new sites. The exact causes of Glioblastoma are still unknown. In general, tumors are abnormal growths, or mutations, of brain cells. However, it remains a mystery how these abnormalities occur. The symptoms of Glioblastoma are highly dependent on the location of the tumor in the brain. In many cases, the symptoms are not visible until the tumor becomes large.
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia is a group of disorders that affect the body's network of hormone-producing glands. Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream and regulate the function of cells and tissues throughout the body. Multiple endocrine neoplasia typically involves tumors in at least two endocrine glands; tumors can also develop in other organs and tissues. These growths can be noncancerous or cancerous .If the tumors become cancerous, the condition can be life-threatening.
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Glioma is a common type of primary brain tumor, accounting for about 33% of these tumors. Gliomas originate in the glial cells in the brain. Glial cells are the tissue that surrounds and supports neurons in the brain. These tumors arise from three different types of cells that are normally found in the brain: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymal cells. Gliomas are called intrinsic brain tumors because they reside within the substance of the brain and often intermix with normal brain tissue.
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Meningiomas are a diverse set of tumors arising from the meninges, the membranous layers surrounding the central nervous system. They arise from the arachnoid "cap" cells of the arachnoid villi in the meninges. These tumors usually are benign in nature; however, small percentages are malignant. Many Meningiomas produce no symptoms throughout the person’s life. These tumours require no treatment other than periodic observation.
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Pituitary adenomas are common benign tumors of the pituitary gland. It is said that up to 10% of people will have a pituitary adenoma by the time of their death. Some tumors secrete one or more hormones in excess. Non-invasive and non-secreting pituitary adenomas are considered to be benign. Adenomas which exceed 10 millimetres in size are defined as macroadenomas, with those smaller than 10 mm referred to as microadenomas.
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Metastatic cancer occurs when cancer spreads from its original location (primary tumour) to a new part of the body. Brain metastases occur when a cancer spreads to the brain from its primary site. Brain metastases are different from a cancer that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumours occur much less often than brain metastases. Brain metastases are fairly common in people with cancer.
Nerve sheath tumours are also called as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are sarcomas which originate from peripheral nerves or from cells associated with the nerve sheath, such as Schwann cells, perineural cells, or fibroblasts. Because MPNSTs can arise from multiple cell types, the overall appearance can vary greatly from one case to the next. This can make diagnosis and classification somewhat difficult. In general, a sarcoma arising from a peripheral nerve or a neurofibroma is considered to be a MPNST.
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Central neurocytoma is a tumor of young adults composed of uniform round cells with neuronal differentiation, typically occurring in the lateral ventricles in the region of the foramen of Monro. Patients with central neurocytoma typically present with signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. These may include headache, or decreased responsiveness or even coma. These intraventriciular tumors are usually greyish and friable, with variable degrees of calcification and intratumoral haemorrhage.
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Medulloblastoma is the most common type of embryonic tumours that arise from immature cells at the earliest stage of their development. The common symptoms of medullobloastoma include behavioural changes, changes in appetite, increased pressure on the brain. Unusual eye movements also may occur. Medulloblastoma is less common in adults. Treatment consists of surgical removal of such tumours and chemotherapy.
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Meningeal carcinomatosis is a condition in which a solid tumor diffusely spreads to the leptomeninges. Lung tumors, breast tumors, and malignant melanoma comprise the majority of solid tumors spreading to the leptomeninges. The most common cancers to involve the leptomeninges are breast cancer, lung cancer. Patients present with signs and symptoms from injury to nerves that traverse the subarachnoid space, direct tumour invasion into the brain or spinal cord, alterations in blood supply to the nervous system, obstruction of normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow pathways, or general interference with brain function, and melanomas.
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Neuroblastoma is a cancer that develops from immature nerve cells found in several areas of the body. Neuroblastoma most commonly arises in and around the adrenal glands, which have similar origins to nerve cells and sit atop the kidneys. However, neuroblastoma can also develop in other areas of the abdomen and in the chest, neck and near the spine, where groups of nerve cells exist. Neuroblastoma most commonly affects children age 5 or younger, though it may rarely occur in older children.
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An astrocytoma is a tumour that arises from the star-shaped cells (astrocytes) that form the supportive tissue of the brain. WHO classifies astrocytomas into four grades depending on how fast they are growing and the likelihood that they will spread (infiltrate) to nearby brain tissue. Non-infiltrating astrocytomas usually grow more slowly than the infiltrating forms. Treatments include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. You may have a combination of these. Your doctor may prescribe steroids to reduce symptoms and drugs to prevent seizures (fits).
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Metastases to the skull are very common in patients with disseminated skeletal metastatic disease, although they are often asymptomatic. In children both neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma are encountered. Although over half of all skeletal metastases are asymptomatic, they can cause symptoms like: Mass effect on adjacent structures, compression of brain, focal neurological deficits, seizures, mechanical instability, occipital condyle compression fracture, temporomandibular joint instability.
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Primary spinal cord tumors arise from the different elements of the CNS, including neurons, supporting glial cells, and meninges. Anatomically, neoplasms of the spinal cord may be classified according to the compartment of origin, either intramedullary or extramedullary. Metastatic lesions are featured in this discussion since they cause 85% of the cases of neoplastic spinal cord compression.
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Intracranial means within the cranium, the bony dome that houses and protects the brain. Metastasis is the spread of a cancer or disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it. Intracranial metastases are most common forms cancers caused by the deposition of cancer cells from the affected primary cancer sites through the blood. Treatment include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.
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Brain stem is the central trunk of the brain, consisting of medulla oblongata, pons and mid brain, and continuing towards the spinalcord. When the brain is affected by the cancer, cells grow indefinitely and size of the brain increases. But the cranium prevents the expansion of brain and results in the brainstem compression. Patients with this syndrome experience severe head ache and other common brain tumour symptoms.
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