Oceanography is the integration of several disciplines, comprising geology, physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering in the form they apply to the ocean. Oceanography encompasses how species adapt to environmental changes, such as increased pollution, warming waters, and natural and artificial disturbances like the eruption of an underwater volcano or a hurricane and an oil spill or overfishing respectively. Studies in physical oceanography have concluded that the amount of water flowing from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean has increased; a process nicknamed the Agulhas leakage. The increased Agulhas leakage has been linked to global warming. The chemical composition of seawater is changing as is its effects on marine organisms, the atmosphere, and the seafloor. Ocean acidification is a key topic in oceanography. The ocean is becoming more acidic because of the increased amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Shellfish populations have declined dramatically as a result of ocean acidification. Research on finding the threshold at which shellfish are unharmed by acidification will complement other studies that aim to reduce the negative impacts of ocean acidification in shellfish and coral environments around the globe.

The global market for oceanography equipment reached nearly $21.5 billion in 2013. This market is expected to grow to nearly $26.6 billion in 2015 and $45.2 billion in 2020 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.2% over the five-year period from 2015 to 2020.

Oceanography is the scientific discipline concerned with all aspects of the world’s oceans and seas, including their physical and chemical properties, their origin and geologic framework, and the life forms that inhabit the marine environment. Traditionally, oceanography has been divided into four separate but related branches: physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, marine geology, and marine ecology.

  • Ocean and coast’s ecology
  • Marine pollution and ocean management
  • Marine ecosystems health and conservation
  • Dynamics of the Indian Ocean
  • Ocean engineering and technology
  • Ocean policy

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