Plant Science

Plants are extremely important in the lives of people throughout the world. People depend upon plants to satisfy such basic human needs as food, clothing, shelter, and health care. These needs are growing rapidly because of a growing world population, increasing incomes, and urbanization.  Approximately 2.5 billion people in the world still rely on subsistence farming to satisfy their basic needs, while the rest are tied into increasingly complex production and distribution systems to provide food, fiber, fuel, and other plant-derived commodities. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the world population was about one billion in 1800, doubled to two billion in 1930, doubled again to four billion in 1975, and reached six billion people in 2000. World population is expected to be nine billion by the year 2050. The challenge to satisfy human needs and wants still exists. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the estimated export value of major plant commodities traded in world markets for 1998 was: rice ($9.9 billion dollars), maize ($9.1 billion), wheat ($15.1 billion), soybeans ($9 billion), coffee greens and roast ($13.7 billion), sugar ($5.9 billion), tobacco ($24.1 billion), cigarettes ($15.4 billion), lint cotton ($8.2 billion), forest products ($123 billion), and forest pulp for paper ($13 billion). The study of plant uses by people is termed economic botany or ethnobotany; some consider economic botany to focus on modern cultivated plants, while ethnobotany focuses on indigenous plants cultivated and used by native peoples. Human cultivation of plants is part of agriculture, which is the basis of human civilization. Plant agriculture is subdivided into agronomy, horticulture and forestry.

According to a new market study published by Transparency Market Research (TMR), titled “Agricultural Biotechnology Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 - 2019”, the global agricultural biotechnology market was worth US$15,300 million in 2012 and is expected to be worth US$28,694.1 million by 2019, expanding at a 9.5% CAGR from 2013 to 2019.Growing population worldwide has led to demand for genetically modified (GM)crops for high yield, which is one of the primary drivers for the growth of the agricultural biotechnology market. Increasing demand for biofuels due to depleting reserves of conventional fuels is further boosting the agricultural biotechnology market.

 

Biotechnology is the technical application to modify any organism by addition or deletion of genes and to make improved and modified organism. There are various modern techniques to develop genetically modify plants, genetically engineered crops. By rDNA technology we can produce a recombinant DNA and insert it in to a vector thus genetically modified crops are produced. Epigenetics is the interchanging between the heredity and the environment through molecular mechanisms (DNA methylation, gene silencing, fluorescent in situ hybridization). Plant Molecular farming is a part of the plant biotechnology industry that involves the process of genetically engineering plants so that they can produce various types of therapeutic proteins and molecules such as peptides and secondary metabolites. These genetically modified proteins and molecules can then be harvested and used to produce pharmaceuticals.

  • Agriculture in biotechnology
  • Viticultue
  • Plant physiology and plant protection
  • Agricultural economics

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