ISSN: 2161-0665
Pediatrics & Therapeutics
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Current Developments in Assisted Reproduction

Gian Mario*
Dipartimento di Medicina e Scienze dell’Invecchiamento, Italy
Corresponding Author : Gian Mario Tiboni
Dipartimento di Medicina e Scienze dell’Invecchiamento
Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università “G. d’Annunzio”
Chieti-Pescara, Ospedale Bernabeo
Contrada S. Liberata, 66026 Ortona (Ch), Italy
Tel: +39 085 9172390
Fax: +39 085 9172390
E-mail: tiboni@unich.it
Received February 09, 2012; Accepted February 11, 2012; Published February 12, 2012
Citation: Mario G (2012) Current Developments in Assisted Reproduction. Pediatr Therapeut 2:e106. doi:10.4172/2161-0665.1000e106
Copyright: © 2012 Mario G. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Pediatrics & Therapeutics

Infertility is a disease, defined as the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse [1]. It is estimated that infertility affects 13% to 15% of couples worldwide [2]. Moreover, 20% of couples consult their general physician because of difficulty conceiving, and half of those couples (10%) require specialist care. In many cases, infertility can be effectively treated only by means of assisted reproductive techniques (ART), which comprises all fertility treatments in which oocytes, sperm and embryos are handled. Since the first successful application of in vitro fertilization in 1978, ART has become widely spread all around the world, and more than 3 million of in vitro conceived babies were born. While we celebrate the significant advances made in the field of ART, intensive search for innovative approaches aimed at increasing birth rates and at reducing the occurrence of complications associated to ART, mainly ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and multiple pregnancies is ongoing.
Ovarian stimulation is a key component of ART and is directed towards the ultimate goal of obtaining an adequate number of good quality oocytes while preventing excessive ovarian response. Recent years have witnessed a significant expansion of the pharmacological armamentarium useful in ovarian stimulation protocols. Introduction in clinical practice of recombinant gonadotropins (FHS, LH, and hCG) and GnRH antagonists are among the most remarkable in this respect. Corifollitropin alfa is a long acting FSH analogue, able to initiate and sustain multiple follicular growth for seven days. As remarkable advantage, corifollitropin alfa may allow the development of simplified treatment regimens with the increase in injection-free interval [3]. GnRH antagonists are used to prevent premature LH surges in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for ART programs. GnRH antagonists have been shown, in comparison to GnRH agonists, to reduce significantly the risk of OHSS [4]. This iatrogenic and potentially life threatening condition, resulting from excessive ovarian stimulation, is estimated to affect 1%-10% of ART cycles. GnRH antagonists also contribute to OHSS prevention by allowing to trigger ovulation with a bolus of a GnRH agonist as an alternative to hCG [5].
The selection of embryos with maximal developmental and implantation potential has relayed on morphological parameters and cleavage rate, as assessed by light microscopy. This methodology has many recognized pitfalls and shortcomings, as underlined by the failure of approximately 8 of 10 transferred embryos to implant. Novel technologies for non-invasive assessment of embryo viability in assisted reproduction are under evaluation. The so called omics, including genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic analysis strategies are among the more innovative and promising [6]. A factor possibly implicated in the relative low implantation rate is the elevated frequency of embryonic numerical chromosomal abnormalities. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) aims at identifying viable euploid embryos potentially having higher chances of producing a pregnancy. The main indications for PGS are advanced maternal age, repeated implantation failure, repeated miscarriage, and eventually severe male factor infertility. Unfortunately there is no evidence of a beneficial effect of PGS as currently applied of a beneficial effect of PGS, as currently applied, on ART outcome [7]. PGS clinical efficiency might benefit of emerging novel technologies, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) allowing the simultaneous enumeration of all chromosomes [8].
Improvements in the field of cryobiology, with particular reference to the introduction of the vitrification technique, have made possible to efficiently preserve oocytes. Survival rates and clinical outcomes comparable to those obtained with fresh oocytes in ART programs have been recently reported [9]. Although oocyte cryopreservation is still considered experimental by major regulatory bodies in Europe and United States, the favorable perspectives offered by this technology in term of fertility preservation for reasons related to age, has led to the extension of clinical application of oocyte freezing also to non-medical indications. A debate regarding the potential social implications of this emerging indication was recently sparked [10].
Concerns regarding the human risk from ART have risen with the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The invasiveness of this technique allowing the injection of the spermatozoon into the oocyte, and thus circumventing all the natural selective barriers, prioritizes the need for careful risk estimation. Although further monitoring is required to draw firm conclusions, recent outcome studies are partially reassuring. Only a slight increase in fetal chromosomal abnormalities and congenital malformations has been associated to ICSI [11]. It is important also to note that emerging data support the concept that ICSI-conceived boys are not at increased risk of altered reproductive health, as reflected by salivary testosterone concentrations measured in teenagers [12].
References
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
 
Share This Article
   
 
   
 
Relevant Topics
Disc Breast Diseases
Disc Caesarean Section
Disc Care to be Taken for New Borns
Disc Clinical Pediatric Surgery
Disc Clinical Pediatrics Allergy
Disc Clinical Pediatrics Cancer
Disc Clinical Pediatrics Cardiology
Disc Clinical Pediatrics Dentistry
Disc Clinical Pediatrics Dermatology
Disc Clinical Pediatrics Nephrology
Disc Clinical Pediatrics Nutrition
Disc Clinical Pediatrics Obesity
Disc Clinical Pediatrics Psychology
Disc Congenital Heart Defects
Disc Congenital Nevi
Disc Fetus
Disc General Care Taken for Mother and Child
Disc Hemolytic Disease of Newborn
Disc Hormonal Changes during Pregnancy
Disc Late Pregnancy Issues
Disc Maternal Psychology
Disc Maternal Depression
Disc Neonatal Bowel Obstruction
Disc Neonatal Cholestasis
Disc Neonatal Conjunctivitis
Disc Neonatal Diabetes
Disc Neonatal Hepatitis
Disc Neonatal Jaundice
Disc Neonatal Lupus Erythematosus
Disc Neonatal Mortality
Disc Neonatal Nursing
Disc Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Disc Neonatal Seizures
Disc Neonatal Stroke
Disc Neonatal Surgeries
Disc Neonatal Tetanus
Disc Neonatal Toxic Shock
Disc Neonatology
Disc Newborn Illness
Disc Pediatric Allergy
Disc Pediatric Asthma
Disc Pediatric Cancer
Disc Pediatric Cardiology
Disc Pediatric Critical Care
Disc Pediatric Dermatology
Disc Pediatric Diseases
Disc Pediatric Gastroenterology
Disc Pediatric Hematology
Disc Pediatric Immunology
Disc Pediatric Medicine
Disc Pediatric Neurology
Disc Pediatric Obesity
Disc Pediatric Ophthalmology
Disc Pediatric Osteology
Disc Pediatric Pulmonology
Disc Pediatric Radiology
Disc Pediatric Rheumatology
Disc Pediatric Surgery
Disc Pediatric Trauma
Disc Pediatrics Health Care
Disc Pediatrics Orthopedics
Disc Physiological Changes during Pregnancy
Disc Post Partum Haemorrhage
Disc Preterm Birth
Disc Preterm Infant
Disc Transmission of Diseases from Mother to Child
Disc Umbilical Cord
Disc Vaccination in Neonates
 
Recommended Journals
Disc Clinics in Mother and Child Health
Disc Clinical Pediatrics Journal
Disc Pediatric Oncology
Disc Pediatric Cardiology Journal
Disc Interventional Pediatrics Journal
Disc Neonatal Medicine Journal
Disc Neonatal Biology Journal
Disc Pediatric Care Journal
  View More»
 
Recommended Conferences
Disc 5th International Conference on Pediatric Nursing and Healthcare
July 11-12,2016 Cologne, Germany
Disc  Neurorehabilitation Conference
July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia
Disc 5th Pediatric Congress
Aug 25-27, 2016; Sao Paulo, Brazil
Disc 2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pediatric Cardiology
September 22-24, 2016; Las Vegas, USA
Disc 10th Nursing and Healthcare
December 05-07, 2016 Dallas, USA
View More»
 
Article Tools
Disc Export citation
Disc Share/Blog this article
 
Article usage
  Total views: 11123
  [From(publication date):
February-2012 - May 28, 2016]
  Breakdown by view type
  HTML page views : 7397
  PDF downloads :3726
 
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

 
OMICS International Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
 
 
OMICS International Conferences 2016-17
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings
 
 

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2016 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version