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ISSN: 2155-6156

Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism

Open Access
 
 
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Upcoming Special Issues

Special issue entitled: "Diabetic Nephropathy- Vol II" has been edited by
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Charles W. Heilig
Professor
Department of Medicine
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension
University of Florida
USA

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Special issue entitled: "Metabolomics: Diabetics- Vol II" has been edited by
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Ippei Kanazawa
Assistant Professor
Department of Internal Medicine
Shimane University
Japan

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About the Journal

Impact Factor: 1.77*
Index Copernicus Value: 6.17

Diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder out of various lifestyle diseases associated with many complications including childhood diabetes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, diabetes cholestrol, endocrine system diseases, complications of hypoglycemia, complications of hyperglycemia, advanced type 2 diabetes treatment, advanced type 1 diabetes treatment, diabetes statistics, pathophysiology of diabetes, obesity and diabetes, diabetes and weight loss, diabetes for dummies, diabetic diet, diabetes and alcohol, reverse diabetes, latest research on diabetes, diabetes lipid metabolism, medical diabetes, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, etc. The condition develops due to abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism and insulin synthesis resulting in high blood sugar with symptoms such as elevated hunger and thirst, polyuria, glycosuria, lethargy etc. The journal is focused on cutting edge research in the prevention, pharmacological treatment, management, and education of diabetes and related disorders.

Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism is a scholarly Journal publishing articles on all aspects of diabetes including Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) or juvenile diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus), Gestational Diabetes, Endocrinology, Diabetes Therapy, Diabetic Drugs, Genetics of Diabetes, obesity with relation to diabetes, risk factors, associated metabolic disorders etc.

Diabetes Journals are the peer reviewed journals and to maintain the quality and standard of the journal content, reviewer’s agreement and respective editor’s acceptance is must for publication of an article in this journal. This journal ensures the barrier-free distribution of its content through online open access and thus helps in improving the citations for authors and attaining a good impact factor.

Submit manuscript at http://editorialmanager.com/acrgroup/ or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at editor.jdm@omicsonline.org

Childhood Diabetes

Childhood diabetes, previously called juvenile diabetes, occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce enough of the hormone insulin. Children with the condition will require lifelong insulin injections and blood sugar monitoring, and a change in diet may be needed.

Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, formerly insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The subsequent lack of insulin leads to increased blood and urine glucose. Currently there is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes, but ongoing studies are exploring ways to prevent diabetes in those who are most likely to develop it.

Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus type 2, formerly noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin.In type 2 diabetes, the cells in your child's body don’t respond to the insulin, and glucose builds up in her bloodstream. This is called insulin resistance. This could lead to other conditions in the future, like heart disease, blindness, and kidney failure.

Diabetes Cholestrol

High cholesterol levels are as serious as high blood pressure, whether a person is diabetic or non-diabetic. Heart disease and stroke have both been linked to high cholesterol and are two of the leading causes of death for diabetics.

Endocrine System Diseases

Endocrine disorders are classified into two categories:
• Endocrine disease that results when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone, called a hormone imbalance.
• Endocrine disease due to the development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect hormone levels

Complications of Hypoglycemia

Over time, repeated episodes of hypoglycemia can lead to hypoglycemia unawareness. The body and brain no longer produce signs and symptoms that warn of a low blood sugar, such as shakiness or irregular heartbeats. When this happens, the risk of severe, life-threatening hypoglycemia is increased. Severe low blood sugar is a medical emergency. It can cause seizures and brain damage. Severe low blood sugar that causes you to become unconscious is called insulin shock.

Complications of Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia, not to be confused with the opposite disorder, hypoglycemia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. Temporary hyperglycemia is often benign and asymptomatic. Blood glucose levels can rise well above normal for significant periods without producing any permanent effects or symptoms.

Advances of Diabetes cure

Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) is a relatively new technology which has the potential to assist people living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and treated with insulin to achieve the goal of optimum control of blood glucose.

Advanced Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

Type 2 diabetes, although less common in very young children, can occur when not enough insulin is produced or it is not working properly. As a result, glucose can accumulate in the bloodstream. The condition can often be managed through a change in diet, increasing exercise and maintaining a healthy weight, although some patients may require diabetes medication - such as metformin - or insulin therapy. Type 2 diabetes prevention is possible by adopting some healthy lifestyle habits and paying attention to specific preventable diabetes complications associated with this disease. Maintaining a healthy diet is important for everyone, but it is especially important for people with diabetes.

Advanced Type 1 Diabetes Treatment

Type 1 diabetes in children, previously called juvenile diabetes, occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce enough of the hormone insulin. Children with the condition will require lifelong insulin injections and blood sugar monitoring, and a change in diet may be needed. Type 1 diabetes requires lifelong treatment to keep blood sugar levels within a target range. Currently there is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes, but ongoing studies are exploring ways to prevent diabetes in those who are most likely to develop it.

Diabetes Statistics

In 2012, 29.1 million Americans, or 9.3% of the population, had diabetes. Approximately 1.25 million American children and adults have type 1 diabetes.
• Undiagnosed: Of the 29.1 million, 21.0 million were diagnosed, and 8.1 million were undiagnosed.
• Prevalence in Seniors: The percentage of Americans age 65 and older remains high, at 25.9%, or 11.8 million seniors (diagnosed and undiagnosed).
• New Cases: The incidence of diabetes in 2012 was 1.7 million new diagnoses/year; in 2010 it was 1.9 million.
• Prediabetes: In 2012, 86 million Americans age 20 and older had prediabetes; this is up from 79 million in 2010.
• Deaths: Diabetes remains the 7th leading cause of death in the United States in 2010, with 69,071 death certificates listing it as the underlying cause of death, and a total of 234,051 death certificates listing diabetes as an underlying or contributing cause of death.

Pathophysiology of Diabetes

In normal persons the hormone insulin, which is made by the beta cells of the pancreas, regulates how much glucose is in the blood. When there is excess of glucose in blood, insulin stimulates cells to absorb enough glucose from the blood for the energy that they need. In this condition the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas. There is beta cell deficiency leading to complete insulin deficiency. Thus is it termed an autoimmune disease where there are anti insulin or anti-islet cell antibodies present in blood. These cause lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of the pancreas islets. The destruction may take time but the onset of the disease is rapid and may occur over a few days to weeks.

Obesity and Diabetes

Being overweight places extra stress on your body in a variety of ways, including your body’s ability to maintain proper blood glucose levels. In fact, being overweight can cause your body to become resistant to insulin. If you already have diabetes, this means you will need to take even more insulin to get sugar into your cells. And if you don’t have diabetes, the prolonged effects of the insulin resistance can eventually cause you to develop the disease. Almost 90% of people living with type 2 diabetes are overweight or have obesity. People who are overweight or have obesity have added pressure on their body's ability to use insulin to properly control blood sugar levels, and are therefore more likely to develop diabetes.

Diabetes and Weight loss

Cutting back on just one meal can affect the delicate balance of blood sugar, insulin, and medication in your body. So it's important to work with an expert when you diet. Unintentional or unexplained weight loss can be caused by a number of things, including depression, certain medication and diabetes. In people with diabetes, insufficient insulin prevents the body from getting glucose from the blood into the body's cells to use as energy. When this occurs, the body starts burning fat and muscle for energy, causing a reduction in overall body weight.

Diabetes for Dummies

Without the pancreas producing this insulin, the sugar will stay in our blood and begin to create serious health issues. High blood sugar can cause blindness, kidney failure, nerve damage, and other organ function problems. And without treating high blood sugar, it can be fatal. In diabetes for dummy's, it is vital to get tested regularly to make sure your normal blood sugar levels are safe. In the meantime, diabetes for dummy says to check your blood sugar levels, and know what they are. You only have one body and we all need to take care of it as best we can.

Diabetic Diet

A diabetes meal plan is a guide that tells you how much and what kinds of food you can choose to eat at meals and snack times. A good meal plan should fit in with your schedule and eating habits. Some meal planning tools include:
• The plate method
• Carb counting
• Glycemic index.
The right meal plan will help you improve your blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol numbers and also help keep your weight on track. Whether you need to lose weight or stay where you are, your meal plan can help.

Diabetes and Alcohol

If you have diabetes, drinking alcohol will cause your blood sugar to rise. Plus, alcohol has a lot of calories. If you drink, do it occasionally and only when your diabetes and blood sugar level are well-controlled. If you are following a calorie-controlled meal plan, one drink of alcohol should be counted as two fat exchanges. Here are some other ways that alcohol can affect diabetes:
• Beer and sweet wine contain carbohydrates and may raise blood sugar.
• Alcohol stimulates your appetite, which can cause you to overeat and may affect your blood sugar control.
• Alcohol may also affect your judgment or willpower, causing you to make poor food choices.
• Alcohol can interfere with the positive effects of oral diabetes medicines or insulin.
• Alcohol may increase triglyceride levels

Reverse Diabetes

Reversing diabetes is a term used to describe interventions that reduce dependency on type 2 diabetes medications, effectively reversing the progression of the illness. With time and dedication, type 2 diabetes can be reversed and the results can be very rewarding with less tiredness and better all round health. Loss of body weight can be particularly beneficial in helping to reverse the progression of diabetes. In some cases, people may find they are able to come off medication, although blood sugar levels should be checked regularly as reversing progression of diabetes is not a cure.

Latest Research on Diabetes

There is a lot of research on diabetes happening all around the world and the latest include:
March 19, 2015: Research to Identify and Correctly Treat Rare Forms of Diabetes Some very rare forms of diabetes are caused by single gene mutations. They are called "monogenic" forms of diabetes and new research is opening the door to specific treatments for these patients.
November 7, 2014: A Close-Up View of Glucose Transport Association-funded researcher Dr. Tamir Gonen recently published a critical study that provides the information needed to design new diabetes drugs. But it almost didn’t happen.
October 31, 2014: A Genetic Link to Type 2 Diabetes in Obesity Although obesity is known to be a significant risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes, most obese people never develop diabetes. An Association-funded researcher aims to understand what factors contribute to diabetes risk in the setting of obesity.

Diabetes Lipid Metabolism

The metabolism of people with diabetes differs to the metabolism of people without it. In type 2 diabetes, the effectiveness of insulin is reduced and in type 1 diabetes, insulin levels in the body are very low. There is a strong correlation between BMI and body fat. One of the correlates of insulin resistance is the blood fatty acid (FA) level. FA levels are strong predictors of muscle insulin resistance. Muscle fat content is increased in obesity and more so in type 2 diabetes. Electron microscopy shows decreased mitochondrial size in muscle from individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Medical Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar in the blood. People with diabetes have high blood sugar because their body cannot move sugar from the blood into muscle and fat cells to be burned or stored for energy, and because their liver makes too much glucose and releases it into the blood. This is because either:
• Their pancreas does not make enough insulin
• Their cells do not respond to insulin normally
• Both of the above
• Type 2 diabetes may be reversed with lifestyle changes, especially losing weight with exercise and by eating healthier foods. Some cases of type 2 diabetes can also be improved with weight-loss surgery.
• There is no cure for type 1 diabetes.
• Keeping an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle may prevent or delay the start of type 2 diabetes.
• Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented.

Diabetes and Metabolic syndrome

The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of the most dangerous heart attack risk factors: diabetes and prediabetes, abdominal obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. A quarter of the world’s adults have metabolic syndrome. People with metabolic syndrome are twice as likely to die from, and three times as likely to have a heart attack or stroke compared with people without the syndrome. People with metabolic syndrome have a five-fold greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Upto 80% of the 200 million people with diabetes globally will die of cardiovascular disease.


OMICS Group
is publishing 500+ open access journals with the support of about 30000 editorial board members. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism is one among the scholarly publishing journals. OMICS Group International is also pioneer and leading scientific event organizer, conducting 300+ International Scientific Conferences per year worldwide and has already signed 1000 scientific Associations to make health care and scientific information open access.

Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism is associated with our international conference "6th Global Diabetes Summit and Medicare Expo Dubai" (Diabetes-2015) during November 02-04, 2015, 2015 Dubai, UAE with a theme “Emerging Interventions & Advancements In Treatment Of Diabetes”. The major sessions include Clinical Diabetes and Diagnostic Approaches, Diabetes Management. its complications, Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes, Transplantation for Diabetes and many other.


*Unofficial 2014 Impact Factor was established by dividing the number of articles published in 2012 and 2013 with the number of times they are cited in 2014 based on Google search and the Scholar Citation Index database. If ‘X’ is the total number of articles published in 2012 and 2013, and ‘Y’ is the number of times these articles were cited in indexed journals during 2014 then, impact factor = Y/X

 

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