ISSN: 1948-5948
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Differential Display Analysis of cDNA Involved in Microbial Mats Response after Heavy Fuel Oil Contamination

Sylvain Bordenave, Marisol Goni-Urriza, Pierre Caumette, Robert Duran*
Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche Environnement et Matériaux – Equipe Environnement et Microbiologie, UMR CNRS 5254 (IPREM - EEM), IBEAS - UFR Sciences et Techniques, BP 1155 F64013 Pau cedex France
Corresponding Author : Dr. Robert Duran,
Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour
Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche Environnement et Matériaux - Equipe Environnement et Microbiologie, UMR CNRS 5254 (IPREM - EEM)
IBEAS - UFR Sciences et Techniques
BP 1155 F64013 Pau cedex France
Tel  : (33) 5 59407468
Fax : (33) 5 59407494
E-mail :
Received December 20, 2009; Accepted December 28, 2009; Published December 28, 2009
Citation: Bordenave S, Goni-Urriza M, Caumette P, Duran R (2009) Differential Display Analysis of cDNA Involved in Microbial Mats Response after Heavy Fuel Oil Contamination. J Microbial Biochem Technol 1:001-004. doi:10.4172/1948-5948.1000001
Copyright: © 2009 Bordenave S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License,which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Related article at
DownloadPubmed DownloadScholar Google

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology


Pristine microbial mats from Camargue salterns (France) maintained in microcosm were contaminated by Erika fuel oil in order to identify gene sequences induced in response to heavy fuel oil contamination. The differential display approach was adapted to detect differentially expressed mRNA in complex bacterial communities. Among the six differentially expressed (DD) cDNA fragments isolated, one was identified and associated with an ABC-type efflux pump. A second DD-fragment was related to a conserved hypothetical protein found in many different bacterial species. Despite differentially expressed fragments could not be clearly identified, this study reveals new perspectives for the improvement of our knowledge on the response of microbial community after petroleum contamination.

Hydrocarbons; Microbial mats; Microcosms; mRNA; Differential display
Bacteria are considered as the main biotic actors in degradation of petroleum products in the environment (Leahy and Colwell, 1990). As single bacterial species is able to degrade a limited number of hydrocarbons, in situ biodegradation of petroleum is usually performed by a consortium composed of many bacterial species. Multiple factors could influence the stability of the bacterial community structure that includes bacterial competition, prophages and physical/chemical conditions.
In coastal zones, particularly exposed to accidental oil spillages and other improper practices, microbial mats develop at the water-sediment interface (Caumette et al., 1994; Van Gemerden, 1993). Ecological success of these bacterial structures and their broad array of microbial activities suggest that they might be useful for bioremediation of environmental pollutants (Bender and Phillips, 2004). Evidence has been presented that microbial mat communities dominated by phototrophic cyanobacteria can be actively involved in the degradation of petroleum and its derivatives (Abed et al., 2006; Bender and Phillips, 2004; Bordenave et al., 2004; Cohen, 2002; Grötzschel et al., 2002; Hoffmann, 1996). In previous study, community analysis based on 16S rRNA (genomic and transcriptomic level) showed clear response of microbial mat after heavy fuel oil contamination [6]. However, analysis of the diversity of genes involved in hydrocarbons biodegradation (dioxygenase and benzyl- succinate synthase) did not show obvious modification after petroleum contamination [6].
One of the major limits for most widespread culture independent methods is their need for a priori information on gene sequence in order to design specific probes or primers. Recently, molecular tools that bypass these prerequisites have been developed and used as new microbiological methods. Fleming and co-workers (Fleming et al., 1998) proposed the DD technique using randomly primed PCR which provides the possibility to assess the specific differences between two RNA populations without previous knowledge of gene sequences revealing thus the unknown part of functional changes. They identified new genes induced by toluene in pure cultures and soils microcosms. DD provides a powerful technique for revealing specific differences between two RNA populations including the unknown part of functional changes in microbial communities.
To clarify the mechanism(s) of the response to heavy fuel oil pollution, analyse of differences in gene expression appears as an accurate approach. The present study aimed to identify genes sequences involved in the microbial mat response to petroleum contamination. Microbial mat used for this work was originated from Camargue salterns (South-East of France) and was contaminated by “Erika” heavy fuel oil (type n°2) under microcosm conditions. Because suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was inefficient to provide information on differentially expressed genes in microbial mat samples (data not shown), we adapted the differential display (DD) method for the analysis of contaminated microbial mats.
Materials and Methods
Microbial mat sampling and microcosms experiment set up
Microcosms experiment set up was previously described (Bordenave et al., 2007). Briefly, Camargue microbial mats were collected, stabilized during 1 month and maintained in microcosms. After 15 days of stabilization, 50 to 70 of “Erika” heavy fuel oil were added on microbial mat surface of half of the microcosms. These microcosms were used as “contaminated microcosms” and the half leaving as controls. One control and one contaminated microcosm were taken randomly 6 hours and 90 days after the contamination. From each microbial mat core, 15 to 20 sub samples were collected at different position through the total depth with Pasteur micropipettes (diameter of 6 mm and depth of 1.5 cm) and immediately frozen at -80°C.
Differential display
RNA from microbial mat was extracted as previously described (Bordenave et al., 2007). When indicated, mRNA from total RNA extract was purified using the MICROBExpress™ bacterial mRNA purification kit (Applied Biosystems/Ambion, Austin USA). The procedure was optimized by combining the provided capture oligo mix with the different MICROBExpress™ modules (Pseudomonas, Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Rhodobacter). Detection of differential expressed mRNA from contaminated or control microbial mats was completed as described by Fleming et al., (2006) with minor modifications. Briefly, 200 ng of RNA were reverse transcribed using Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (New England Biolabs, Ipswich USA) wi th 20 μM pr imer 70.3 (ACGGTGCCTG). The cDNA (5 μl) were used in differential display PCR. as follow: Taq polymerase (Eurobio, Les Ulis France), 1U; 1.5 mM MgCl2; each dNTP, 20 μM; dimethyl sulfoxide, 6%; 10% Triton X-100, 0,1%; primers 70.3 and SD14 (GGGGAACGACGATG), 2 μM each; and 1X PCR buffer (Eurobio, Les Ulis France). The amplification was performed in a PTC200 thermal cycler (MJ research, Ramsey USA) by applying 40 cycles consisting of 94°C for 30 s, 40°C for 2 min, and 72°C for 1 min, followed by 10 min final extension step at 72°C. For each condition, arbitrarily primed reverse transcript PCRs were completed in triplicates using RNA or mRNA-purified extracts from three sub samples. Differentially amplified cDNA were detected by comparing the patterns of RAP-PCR products from the two different conditions on a 5% (19:1) polyacrylamide gel. Bands of interest were cut and DNA fragments were extracted from gel slices at 37°C over night in 180 μl of acrylamide elution buffer (0.5 M ammonium acetate; 10 mM magnesium acetate tetrahydrate; 1 mM EDTA pH8; 0.1% SDS). After ethanol precipitation DNA was recovered in 10 μl TE buffer. Purified differentially amplified fragments were reamplified using 0.2 μM SD14 and 70.3 primers (Bender and Phillips, 2004) in 50 μL PCR reaction mixtures as described above except for a primer annealing at 41°C for 1 min. Amplified fragments were cloned (TOPO TA cloning kit, Invitrogen, Cergy Pontoise France) to compensate for the possible background from co-migrating fragments. Cloned products were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism with HaeIII and HinfI. Twenty inserts from each library were analyzed and the main representative pattern (above 80%) was sequenced (Big Dye Terminator v 3.1 cycle sequencing kit, Applied Biosystem, Austin USA). Nucleotides sequences were compared to sequences from GenBank DNA database by using the BLAST algorithm (Altschul et al., 1990). The differential expression of fragments was checked by Dot-blot analysis using. DD fragment were 32P-labeled by random primer method (Rediprime II DNA Labelling System, GE Healthcare, Aulnay Sous Bois France). Radioactive detection was performed with an imager (Typhoon 9200, GE Healthcare, Aulnay Sous Bois France) after 12 hours of exposition.
Results and Discussion
Control and contaminated microbial mat microcosms were compared by DD analysis, when conspicuous divergences between the community structures were observed (Bordenave et al., 2007). In a first attend, arbitrarily primed reverse transcript PCR (DD-PCR) was performed on total RNA extract using SD14 and 70.3 primers (Fleming et al., 1998). DD-Fingerprints of triplicate analyses from the different microcosm samples were nearly identical (similarity >93% between triplicates). Eighteen differentially amplified gene fragments were detected, among them, fourteen presented homologies with rRNA gene sequences from cultured and uncultured bacteria detected in microbial mats and/or marine environments (data not shown). The others were not related to rRNA genes; one presented homologies with a homoserine deshydrogenase (E-value of 8.10-83) another to a sensor kinase (E-value of 5.10-94) and two could not be related to known sequences. Because verification of rRNA genes differential expression by dot-blotting was improbable, the interpretation of these results remains speculative. Multiple and strenuous quantitative PCR verifications would be needed to confirm these results. Consistent with previous reports, the abundance of different rRNA limits the access to mRNA (Liang, 2002; Nagel et al., 1999).
In a second attend, the early bacterial response to oil addition was assessed in samples after 6h of incubation since previous analyses showed that the active part of the whole bacterial community was modified but not their structure (Bordenave, 2007). To eliminate differences in rRNA bacterial expression, the mRNA was purified using the MICROBExpress™ bacterial mRNA purification kit (Applied Biosystems/Ambion, Austin USA). Analysis of DD gene expression after mRNA purification from total RNA shows that this step overcomes the problem of rRNA preeminence maintaining the reproducibility (similarity >94% between triplicates, Figure 1A). None of the 12 DD-PCR fragments detected was rRNA gene. The differential expression of 6 of these DD-PCR fragments (82 to 279 bp) was validated by dot blot analyses (Figure 1B).
The few number of DD-genes obtained is in concordance with previous studies (Chang et al., 2004; Li et al., 2006). High proportion of false-positive constitutes one of the limitis of the DD technique and is frequently observed (Liang, 2002; Nagel et al., 1999). Expression of four of the 6 DD-genes was detected only under contamination conditions (Figure 1B, DD2, DD3, DD4, and DD5 bands). The expression of DD1 was 10 times higher in control microcosm compared to the polluted whereas that of DD6 was 15 times higher in polluted microcosms (Figure 1B). Because the bacterial response to oil addition may involve more genes, the use of different primers would be necessary to increase the number of detected DD-genes (Godoy et al., 2007). Homology analyses of the sequenced DNA fragments showed significant hits for two sequences (E-value < 1-10; Table 1). Translated DD5 sequence presented 44% identity for 76 amino acid residues with an unknown protein of Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum str. SI, a propionate-oxidizing bacteria (Kosaka et al., 2006). Homologues of this protein are found in other microorganisms (Desulfococcus oleovorans Hxd3, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B and Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485) and in marine methagenome (Venter et al., 2004). The expression of this protein after petroleum contamination will open new perspectives for the identification of its function by studying the physiology of pure strains. Translated DD3 sequence presented 72% identity for 61 amino acid residues with an ATPBinding Cassette (ABC)-type Na+ efflux pump. Furthermore, DD4 sequence contained specific motifs of signal-peptide and transmembrane region of an ABC transporter permease (Table 1).
ABC transporters are involved in the export/import of a wide variety of substrates ranging from small ions to macromolecules. In prokaryotes, the major function of ABC import systems is to provide essential nutrients to bacteria whereas export systems are involved in the extrusion of noxious substances, the export of extra cellular toxins and the targeting of membrane components (Higgins, 2001). They are involved in resistance to organic solvents (Kim et al., 1998; Tomii and Kanehisa, 1998) and their role in the uptake of hydrocarbons or in the efflux of metabolites especially in PAH-degradation is suggested (Stingley et al., 2004).
Despite bacterial community modification has been previously observed in pristine Camargue microbial mats just after heavy fuel oil contamination (Bordenave et al., 2007), no detectable catabolic response has been reported. Our results reinforce this statement because, among the 6 DD-expressed genes detected, none of them correspond to genes encoding for known catabolicenzymes. The role of these DD genes in the response of petroleum contamination must be characterised and the processes in which they are involved identified. Attribution of a precise function will require isolation of the full-length gene and functional studies of the protein. Most of the previous studies using DD analysis (Chang et al., 2004; Li et al., 2006) have been restricted to pure culture, insensitive to high quantitative proportion of rRNA in nucleic extracts. Because samples from microbial mats contained high levels of rRNA, a mRNA purification step was added without affecting the reproducibi li ty of the method. This metatranscriptomic approach opens new perspectives for the improvement of our knowledge on the bacterial mechanisms involved in response to petroleum contamination.
We acknowledge the financial support by the EC (MATBIOPOL project, grant EVK3-CT-1999-00010 and FACEiT project, grant N° 018391), the Ministère de l’Ecologie et du Développement Durable (MEDD - LIT’EAU/Erika project, N° 01/1213857 and PNETOX N° CV04000147) and the ANR (DHYVA project, N° 06SEST09). The authors are grateful to the company of Salins du Midi at Salins-de-Giraud for facilitating access to the salterns, sampling and field experiments. SB was partly supported by a doctoral grant from the Aquitaine region.

  1. Abed RMM, Al-Thukair A, De Beer D (2006) Bacterial diversity of a cyanobacterial mat degrading petroleum compounds at elevated salinities and temperatures. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 57: 290-301. »  CrossRef  »  PubMed   »  Google Scholar
  2. Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ (1990) Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215: 403-410. »  CrossRef »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  3. Bender J, Phillips P (2004) Microbial mats for multiple applications in aquaculture and bioremediation. Bioresour Technol 94: 229-238. »  CrossRef  »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  4. Bordenave S (2007) Impact of petroleum contamination on microbial mat and study of their response. PhD Thesis, University of Pau and Pays de l’Adour, Pau, France.
  5. Bordenave S, Jézéquel R, Fourçans A, Budzinski H, Merlin FX et al. (2004) Degradation of the “Erika” oil. Aquat Living Resour 17: 261-267. »  CrossRef  »  Google Scholar
  6. Bordenave S, Goñi-Urriza MS, Caumette P, Duran R (2007) Effects of heavy fuel oil on the bacterial community structure of a pristine microbial mat. Appl Environ Microbiol 73: 6089-6097. »  CrossRef  »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  7. Caumette P, Matheron R, Raymond N, Relexans JC (1994) Microbial mats in the hypersaline ponds of Mediterranean salterns (Salins-de-Giraud, France). FEMS Microbiol Ecol 13: 273-286.»  CrossRef »  Google Scholar
  8. Chang IS, Groh JL, Ramsey MM, Ballard JD, Krumholz LR (2004) Differential Expression of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Genes in Response to Cu(II) and Hg(II) Toxicity. Appl Environ Microbiol 70: 1847-1851. »  CrossRef  »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  9. Cohen Y (2002) Bioremediation of oil by marine microbial mats. Int Microbiol 5: 189-193. »  CrossRef »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  10. Fleming JT, Yao WH, Sayler GS (1998) Optimization of differential display of prokaryotic mRNA: application to pure culture and soil microcosms. Appl Environ Microbiol 64: 3698-706.»  CrossRef  »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  11. Godoy APO, Reis FC, Ferraz LFC, Gerrits MM, Mendonça S, et al. (2007) Differentially expressed genes in response to amoxicillin in Helicobacter pylori analyzed by RNA arbitrarily primed PCR. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 50: 226-230. »  CrossRef  »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  12. Grötzschel S, Köster J, Abed RMM, De Beer D (2002) Degradation of petroleum model compounds immobilized on clay by a hypersaline microbial mat. Biodegradation 13: 273-283. »  CrossRef  »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  13. Higgins CF (2001). ABC transporters: Physiology, structure and mechanism - An overview. Res Microbiol 152: 205-210.»  CrossRef »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  14. Hoffmann L (1996) Recolonisation of the intertidal flats by microbial mats after the Gulf War oil spill. In A marine wildlife sanctuary for the Arabian Gulf: environmental research and conservation following the 1991 Gulf War oil spill. Krupp, F., Abuzinada, A.H., and Nader, I.A. (eds). Frankfurt, Germany: Riyad, Saudi Arabia, and Seneckenberg Research Institue pp96-115.»  CrossRef »  Google Scholar
  15. Kim K, Lee S, Lee K, Lim D (1998) Isolation and characterization of toluene- sensitive mutants from the toluene-resistant bacterium Pseudomonas putida GM73. J Bacteriol 180: 3692-3696. »  CrossRef»  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  16. Kosaka T, Uchiyama T, Ishii SI, Enoki M, Imachi H, et al. (2006) Reconstruction and regulation of the central catabolic pathway in the thermophilic propionate-oxidizing syntroph Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum. J Bacteriol 188: 202-210. »  CrossRef  »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  17. Leahy JG, Colwell RR (1990) Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons in the environment. Microbiol Rev 54: 305-15. »  CrossRef  »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  18. Li S, Xiao X, Li J, Luo J, Wang F (2006) Identification of genes regulated by changing salinity in the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella sp. WP3 using RNA arbitrarily primed PCR. Extremophiles 10: 97-104. »  CrossRef »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  19. Liang P (2002) A decade of differential display. Biotechniques 33: 338- 346. »  PubMed »  Google Scholar  
  20. Nagel A, Fleming JT, Sayler GS (1999) Reduction of false positives in prokaryotic mRNA differential display. Biotechniques 26: 641-648. »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  21. Stingley RL, Khan AA, Cerniglia CE (2004) Molecular characterization of a phenanthrene degradation pathway in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR- 1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 322: 133-146. »  CrossRef »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  22. Tomii K, Kanehisa M (1998) A comparative analysis of ABC transporters in complete microbial genomes. Genome Res 8: 1048-1059. »  CrossRef  »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar
  23. Van Gemerden H (1993) Microbial mats : A joint of venture. Marine Geology 113: 3-25.»  CrossRef »  Google Scholar
  24. Venter JC, Remington K, Heidelberg JF, Halpern AL, Rusch D, et al. (2004) Environmental Genome Shotgun Sequencing of the Sargasso Sea. Science 304: 66-74.  »  CrossRef  »  PubMed  »  Google Scholar

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Share This Article
Relevant Topics
Disc Advanced Bioprocess Products
Disc Advances in Bioprocess Technology
Disc Advances in Biotechniques
Disc Advances in Food Bioprocess Technology
Disc Affinity Purification
Disc Agricultural
Disc Agricultural biotechnology
Disc Anaerobic Biodegradation
Disc Analytical Chromatography
Disc Animal and Plant Nutrition
Disc Animal biotechnology
Disc Anthrax
Disc Anti-parasitic Agents
Disc Antibacterial Agents
Disc Antibodies
Disc Antifungal Agents
Disc Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Disc Antimicrobial Drugs
Disc Antimicrobial Peptide
Disc Antimicrobial Research
Disc Antimicrobial Resistance
Disc Antiprotozoals
Disc Antiseptics
Disc Antiviral Agents
Disc Applied Biotechnology
Disc Aseptic processing
Disc Bacteraemia
Disc Bacterial Ecology
Disc Bacterial Genomics
Disc Bacterial Infections
Disc Bacterial Toxin
Disc Bactericidal Drugs
Disc Bacteriology
Disc Bacteriostatic Drugs
Disc Beneficial Microorganisms in Food
Disc Beverage Industry
Disc Biocatalysis
Disc Biochemical Methods
Disc Biochemical Process
Disc Biochemistry
Disc Biodegradable Balloons
Disc Biodegradable Confetti
Disc Biodegradable Diapers
Disc Biodegradable Plastics
Disc Biodegradable Sunscreen
Disc Biodegradation
Disc Biofertilizers Technology
Disc Biological Activity
Disc Biomaterial implants
Disc Biomedical Chromatography
Disc Biomolecules
Disc Bioprocess Engineering
Disc Bioprocess Industry and Market Analysis
Disc Bioprocess Manufacturing
Disc Bioprocess Modelling
Disc Bioprocess and Systems Engineering
Disc Bioprocessing and Biopharma Manufacturing
Disc Bioremediation Bacteria
Disc Bioremediation Oil Spills
Disc Bioremediation Plants
Disc Bioremediation Products
Disc Biotechnology applications
Disc Blood Biochemistry
Disc Cancer Progression and Diagnostics
Disc Capillary Electrochromatography
Disc Carbohydrate Metabolism
Disc Carbohydrates Biochemistry
Disc Cardiac Markers
Disc Cardiovascular biomaterials
Disc Cellular and molecular Biochemistry
Disc Chromatography
Disc Clinical Biochemistry
Disc Clinical Chemistry
Disc Clinical Microbiology
Disc Coagulase Test
Disc Contamination
Disc Decomposers
Disc Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry
Disc Diagnosis
Disc Diagnosis and treatment of Infectious Disease
Disc Diagnostics
Disc Electrolytes
Disc Electron Capture Dissociation Mass Spectroscopy
Disc Electrophoresis
Disc Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry Newborn Screening
Disc Enzyme Technology
Disc Escherichia coli
Disc Ex Situ Bioremediation
Disc Experimental Food Microbiology
Disc Extraction Chromatography
Disc Fermentation
Disc Fermentation Industrial Microbiology
Disc Filtration
Disc Fishery biochemistry
Disc Food Additives
Disc Food Adulteration
Disc Food Allergens
Disc Food Biochemistry
Disc Food Borne Diseases
Disc Food Contamination
Disc Food Hazards
Disc Food Hygiene
Disc Food Hygiene Regulations
Disc Food Intoxication
Disc Food Labeling
Disc Food Microbes
Disc Food Microbiology
Disc Food Poisoning
Disc Food Quality Assurance
Disc Food Regulations
Disc Food Research International Standards (Food Research Europe, Food Research USA)
Disc Food Safety
Disc Food Safety and Quality
Disc Food Spoilage
Disc Food allergies
Disc Food and Beverage Technology
Disc Food and Feed Chemistry
Disc Food industry
Disc Food poison
Disc Food preservation
Disc Food science technology
Disc Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry
Disc GC-MS
Disc Gas Chromatography
Disc Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
Disc Genetic Diagnostics
Disc Genetic Testing
Disc Genomics in Infectious Diseases
Disc Germ cell tumours
Disc Good nutrition
Disc Heavy Metal Bioremediation
Disc Host-Pathogen Interactions
Disc Imaging Mass Spectrometry
Disc Immuno Affinity Chromatography
Disc In Situ Bioremediation
Disc Industrial Bioprocessing
Disc Industrial Food Microbiology
Disc Industrial Microbiology
Disc Infection Control
Disc Inorganic Chemistry
Disc Inorganic biochemistry
Disc Intestinal Parasites
Disc Ion-exchange chromatography
Disc LC-MS
Disc Leprosy
Disc Liquid Chromatography
Disc Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
Disc Liquid Liquid Extraction
Disc Listeriosis
Disc Liver Diseases
Disc Liver Function Tests
Disc Lyme Disease
Disc Market Analysis of Food Testing
Disc Mass Spectrometry
Disc Mass Spectrometry Based Quantitative Metabolomics
Disc Mass Spectrometry in Medicine
Disc Mass Spectroscopy in Forensic Studies
Disc Medical Biochemistry
Disc Membrane Biochemistry
Disc Metabolites
Disc Method Validation
Disc Microbial Assay
Disc Microbial Assay of Antibiotic
Disc Microbial Biofuels
Disc Microbial Biosensor
Disc Microbial Fermentation
Disc Microbial Nutrition
Disc Microbiology
Disc Microbiology and Immunology
Disc Microbiology and Immunology Research
Disc Microbiology and Pathology
Disc Microorganism
Disc Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
Disc Molecular Diagnostics
Disc Molecular Forensics
Disc Morphology
Disc Multi Parametric Molecular Diagnostics
Disc Mycobacterium
Disc Mycology
Disc Mycoremediation
Disc Nano Chemistry
Disc Nano biotechnology
Disc Non Biodegradable
Disc Parasitic Infection
Disc Parasitic Worms
Disc Parasitology
Disc Pasteurisation
Disc Pathogen
Disc Pesticides
Disc Pesticides Biochemistry
Disc Petrochemistry
Disc Pharmaceutical Bioprocessing
Disc Phytoremediation
Disc Pigments
Disc Preparative Biochemistry
Disc Prevention of Contamination
Disc Principles of Diagnosis
Disc Protein Biochemistry
Disc Protein Folding by Mass Spectrometry
Disc Protein Mass Spectrometry
Disc Protein Purification
Disc Renal Function Test
Disc Rickettsioses
Disc Safe Food Handling Practices
Disc Salmonella
Disc Salmonellosis
Disc Selective Pressure
Disc Selective Toxicity
Disc Separation Techniques
Disc Sewage Water Treatment
Disc Soil Biochemistry
Disc Soil Bioremediation
Disc Soil organism
Disc Stem Cell Bioprocessing
Disc Sterilization
Disc Streptococcus
Disc Super Critical Fluid Chromatography
Disc Synthetic High Polymers
Disc Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Disc Transformation
Disc Types of Upwelling
Disc Ultrasound Technologies in Food Industry
Disc Virology
Disc Waste Degredation
Disc White/industrial biotechnology
Disc Xenobiotics
Disc Zoonotic Bacterial Diseases
Disc clinical Microbial Pathology
Recommended Journals
Disc Antimicrobial Agents Journal
Disc Molecular Diagnostics Journal
Disc Medical Biochemistry Journal
Disc Industrial Chemistry Journal
Disc Mass Spectrometry Journal
Disc Chromatography Journal
Disc Molecular Biology Journal
Disc Bioprocessing Journal
Disc Analytical Biochemistry Journal
Disc Food Microbiology Journal
Disc Industrial Microbiology Journal
Disc Biotechnology Journal
Disc Bioremediation Journal
Disc Bacteriology Journal
Disc Medical Microbiology Journal
  View More»
Recommended Conferences
Disc Water Microbiology Congress
July 18-20, 2016, Chicago, USA
Disc Veterinary Microbiology Summit
July 18-20, 2016, Chicago, USA
Disc Industrial Microbiology Conference
Aug 1-3, 2016, Frankfurt, Germany
Disc 6th Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Genomics Congress
Oct 24-26, 2016, Rome, Italy
Disc  7th World Congress and Expo onApplied Microbiology
Nov 10-12, 2016, Istanbul, Turkey
View More»
Article Tools
Disc Export citation
Disc Share/Blog this article
Article usage
  Total views: 11156
  [From(publication date):
December-2009 - Jun 30, 2016]
  Breakdown by view type
  HTML page views : 7430
  PDF downloads :3726

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

OMICS International Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
OMICS International Conferences 2016-17
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2016 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version