Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy is an official peer-reviewed journal for the rapid publication of innovative research covering all aspects of Gene Mapping and Gene Therapy. Genetic Syndromes, Gene Mapping & Gene Therapy with highest impact factor offers Open Access option to meet the needs of authors and maximize article visibility. Journal of Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy encompasses the continuous coverage of all biological and medical aspects of potential gene therapies for the birth defects along with genetic disorders which include treatments for cancers, arthritis, infectious diseases, inherited diseases like cystic fibrosis and Huntington’s disease, and also genetic abnormalities or deficiencies treated by incorporating specific engineered genes into the infected cells of patient’s body. The Journal of Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy provides reliable information updating online viewers with the modified methods and latest advancements in the field of gene therapy for diverse genetic disorders.
Down syndrome is one of the most common genetic disorder that affects both physical and mental ability. It is caused by a gene problem before birth.Generally a normal person posses 46 chromosomes but a person with Down Syndrome has 47 chromosomes.There are three different types of Down syndrome: trisomy, translocation, and mosaicism. Symptoms include short head,short neck,poor muscle tone, excessive flexibility etc.
Sickel cell anemia is a blood disorder caused by an abnormality in haemoglobin molecule in red blood cells.Person inherited by Sickle-cell disease has two abnormal copies of haemoglobin gene.Normal red blood cells are round and flexible whereas sickled red blood cells appear in sickle-shape.Abnormal haemoglobin forms strands that change red blood cells to that form and hence they accumulate at the branches of the veins and blocks the flow of blood.As haemoglobin is responsible for carrying of oxygen throught out the body,there may be chronic attacks due to lack of oxygen supply.
It is a type of disease that causes progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass. Here the process of mutation get involved in the production of proteins that are required to build a healthy muscle.Some types of Muscular dystrophy are Myotonic, Facioscapulohumeral , Congenital, Limb-girdle. It occurs when one of the genes responsible for production of proteins is defective.But some of them occur in the early stage of embryo and is passed to the next generation.
Cystic fibrosis is a disorder caused by the presence of mutations in both the copies of the gene which is responsible for the protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.It affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices.These fluids are thin and slippery but a defective gene causes these secretions to become thick ,thus blocking the passages in the lungs and pancreas.
An Auto immune disease develops when the immune system responsible for defending the body against diseases fights against the healthy cells. Here the immune system fails to differentiate healthy tissues and antigens, as a result the body sets off a reaction that destroy normal tissues.Some unknown trigger happens to confuse the immune system and instead of fighting against the infections it destroys the body’s own tissues.
Mitochiondrian disease is a group of disorder caused by dysfunctional mitochondria. Mytochondria are responsible for generation of 90% of energy required by the body to sustain life and growth.These are also known as the power house of the cell.They contain tiny packages of enzymes that converts nutrients into energy. This disease is caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and its failure in function may ultimately lead to cell death.
Congunial syndromes is a disease that exists before birth.These are characterized by structural deformities and defects are involved in developing fetus.Defects may be due to genetic or environmental factors.The outcome of the disorder may be because of mother’s diet, vitamin intake,glucose levels prior to ovulation. Paternal exposures prior to conception and during pregnancy increases the risk of this disease.It is caused by multiple mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene.
Celiac diasease is a genetic auto immune disease that damages the small intestine. The immune system develops antibodies against gluten which is a protein present in wheat, barley and foods made of grains. This damages the Villi present in the small intestine.Villi,a hair like structure in the lining of the small intestine is responsible for the absorption of nutrients from food and its damage lead to malnourishment no matter how much the person consumes.
Reye syndromes is a disease that causes swelling of the brain and liver .The actual cause is unknown but studies has shown that Aspirin is related to the cause of this disease generally in children and teenagers recovering from flu illness.The symptoms are vomiting, nausea, confusion,lethargy,coma, irritable and aggressive behavior.Abnormal laboratoty tests include rise in lever enzymes, ammonia levels and low serum glucose levels.
Patau syndromes is a disorder caused by chromosomal abnormality.It occurs when some or all the cells contain extra copy of the chromosome 13.This restricts the normal functioning ,growth and development of the organs resulting in intellectual disability and physical abnormalities. It is also called Trisomy 13.It also can occur when part of chromosome gets attatched to another chromosome during the formation of embryo.
Fragile syndrome is a genetic disorder that results in intellectual disability.Mutations in the FMRI gene causes this disease. This gene is responsible for the preparation of a protein ,FMRP.This protein regulates the production of other proteins and is necessary for the development of synapses which are the connections between nerve cells.Mutations in FMRI prevents the production of FMRP ,thus disturbing the nervous system.
Angelman syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the nervous system.Characteristic features include happy demeanor,intelluctual disability,speech impairment,walking and balancing disorders.This arises when segment of the maternal chromosome 15 containing the gene UBE3 A is deleted or undergoes mutation.People inherit one copy of this gene from each parent and both the copies remain active in many of the body tissues.But due to genetic mutations, gene may become active or get deleted in some parts of the brain resulting in intellectual disability.
Tay-Sachs is a genetic disorder that destroys the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Characteristic features include weakening of muscles,intellectual disability,vision and hearing loss,paralyses.Mutations in the HEXA gene causes this disease .This gene is responsible for the production of an enzyme in lysosome which plays a critical role in the brain and spinal cord.This enzyme breaks down the toxic substances in the cell.Mutations in the HEXA gene causes failure in the production of enzyme resulting in the accumulation of toxic substances in the cells leading to damage in the neurons of the brain and spinal cord.
Prenatal genetic testing is meant to evaluate the chance of exhibiting genetic disorders in their unborn children.The tests are usually done between 10th and 13th week of pregnancy . These tests involves the measurement of certain levels of substances in the mother’s blood and obtaining an ultrasound.These tests are meant to evaluate the genetic material of the fetus for any genetic disorders.It is also useful to diagnose high risk pregnancies.
Genes hold DNA that are responsible for giving instructions in the production of proteins.Mutations in genes may cause failure in the working of proteins leading to a condition called genetic disorder.These disorders may be inherited form parents or may occur at any point of lifetime.Genetic disorder may result in the addition or reduction in the number of chromosomes.
Genetic mutation is a permanent change in the DNA.Mutations may or may not produce changes in the organism.Hereditary mutations and Somatic mutations are the two types of Gene mutations.Former type is inherited from the parents and are present in every cell of the human body whereas latter type may occur at some point of life time due to environmental factors.