AHFV was firstly identified as the agent of a viral hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia caused by sheeps, camel, goats and characterized serologically and genetically as a variant genotype of Kyasanur Forest disease virus. Since viral diagnosis and vaccine development may be hindered by genetic diversity, this study was intended to address AHFV genetic heterogeneity.
Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, retroorbital pain, joint pain, generalized muscle pain, anorexia and vomiting associated with leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated levels of liver enzymes and some patients had clinical symptoms of hemorrhagic fever or encephalitis.
Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (AHFV) disease increased from 59 cases in 2009 to 93 cases in 2011. Cases are being discovered outside of the region where it was initially diagnosed in Saudi Arabia. About a third of cases had no direct contact with animals or its products. Almost all cases had gastro-intestinal symptoms. Case fatality rate was less than 1%.