|Biofield treatment; Cadmium; X-ray diffraction;
Differential scanning calorimetry; Particle size; Surface area; Scanning
|Cadmium (Cd) element belongs to group IIB in the Periodic
Table, which originally exists in Hexagonal Closed Packing (HCP)
crystal structure. Cadmium is widely used in battery, predominantly
in rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries as anode, stabilizers, coating
applications etc. Higher specific surface area of a material plays an
important role in many applications including battery electrodes,
catalyst supports, and energy storage devices . The increase in surface
area of the electrodes in batteries leads to improve the cell current
density and thus, deliver more power . Besides that, in industries,
high surface area is achieved via various methods such as ball milling,
and laser-assisted chemical vapour deposition, etc [3-5]. Nevertheless,
these processes require complex and expensive methods that can limit
the application of these materials. Thus, researchers have investigated
alternative ways to increase the surface area. After considering of
cadmium properties and cost aspect, the authors wanted to investigate
an alternative and economically viable approach that could be
beneficial to modify the atomic, structural, and thermal properties of
powder. The law of mass-energy inter-conversion has existed in the
literature for more than 300 years for which first idea was given by
Hasenohrl, after that Einstein derived the well-known equation E=mc2
for light and mass [6-7]. However the conversion of mass into energy is
fully verified, but the inverse of this relation, i.e. energy into mass has
not yet verified scientifically. Furthermore, the energy exists in various
forms such as kinetic, potential, electrical, magnetic, and nuclear, etc.
Similarly, human nervous system consists of neurons, which have the
ability to transmit information in the form of electrical signals [8-10].
Thus, a human has ability to harness the energy from environment/
universe and it can transmit into any object (living or non-living) on
the Globe. The object always receives the energy and responded into useful way and that is called biofield energy. This process is known as
biofield treatment. Mr. Trivedi's biofield treatment (The Trivedi effect)
has known to transform the characteristics in various fields such as
material science [11-14], microbiology [15-17], biotechnology [18,19],
and agriculture [20-22]. In metals and ceramics the biofield treatment
has shown the excellent results in physical, thermal, and atomic level.
In addition, the biofield treatment had increased the particle size by
six folds and enhanced the crystallite size by two folds in zinc powder
. Based on the outstanding result achieved by biofield treatment
on metals and ceramics, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of
biofield treatment on at atomic, thermal and structural properties of
|Cadmium powder used in present investigation was procured
from Alpha Aesar, USA. The cadmium powder sample was divided
into two parts, referred as control and treated. The treated part was
received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples
were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, and
scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
|X-ray diffraction analysis
|XRD analysis of control and treated cadmium powder was
performed using Phillips, Holland PW 1710 XRD diffractometer,
which had a copper anode with nickel filter. The wavelength of X-ray
radiation used was 1.54056 Å. Data obtained from the XRD was in
chart form of intensity vs. 2θ°, with a detailed table containing d value
(Å), number of peaks, peak width 2θ°, peak count, relative intensity
of peaks, etc. Further, lattice parameter and unit cell volume were
computed using PowderX software.
|Crystallite size=k λ/ b Cosθ.
|Where, λ is the wavelength of x-ray (=1.54056 Å) and k is the
equipment constant (=0.94).
|Besides, the percent change in the lattice parameter was calculated
using following equation:
|Where A Control and A Treated are the lattice parameter of treated and
control samples respectively. Similarly, the percent change in all other
parameters such as unit cell volume, density, atomic weight, nuclear
charge per unit volume, crystallite size was calculated. For XRD
analysis treated sample was divided into four parts referred as T1, T2,
T3 and T4.
|For thermal analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC)
of Perkin Elmer/Pyris-1, USA with a heating rate of 10°C/min and
nitrogen flow of 5 ml/min was used. Melting point and latent heat of
fusion were obtained from the DSC curve.
|Percent change in melting point was calculated using following
|Where, T Control and T Treated are the melting point of control and
treated samples, respectively.
|Where, ΔH Control and ΔH Treated are the latent heat of fusion of
control and treated samples, respectively.
|Particle size and surface area analysis
|Laser particle size analyzer, Sympatec HELOS-BF was used to determine the particle size distribution, which had a detection range of
0.1–875 μm. The data obtained from the instrument was in the form of
a chart of cumulative percentage vs. particle size. Average particle size
d50 and d99 (size below which 99% particle are present) were computed
from particle size distribution curve. Percent change in particle size
was calculated using following equations:
|Where, (d50) Control and (d50) Treated are the particle size, d50 of control
and treated samples respectively. Similarly, the percent change in
particle size d99was calculated.
|The surface area was measured by the Surface area analyser, Smart
SORB 90 based on Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), which had a
detection range of 0.2–1000 m2/g. Percent change in surface area was
calculated using following equations:
|Where, S Control and S Treated are the surface area of control and
treated samples respectively.
|Scanning electron microscopy
|Structure and surface morphology are the unique properties of
powder. Thus, control and treated cadmium samples were observed
using JEOL JSM-6360 SEM instrument at 500X magnification.
Differences in the tendency of the particles to aggregate were
easily seen at the lower magnifications, while variations in size and
morphology become clearer at higher magnification .
|Results and discussion
|X-ray diffraction analysis
|XRD analysis results of cadmium powder is illustrated in Table 1
and Figures 1-3. Data showed that the lattice parameter in cadmium
was increased by 0.05, 0.20, 0.36 and 0.26% in T1, T2, T3, and T4
sample respectively, as compared to control. This lead to increase the
unit cell volume by 0.10, 0.41, 0.73, and 0.53% in T1, T2, T3, and T4
sample respectively, as compared to control. Moreover, this increase
in unit cell volume led to reduce the density by 0.10, 0.41, 0.72 and
0.53% in T1, T2, T3, and T4 respectively, as compared to control. Thus,
the increased in unit cell volume and decreased in density in treated
cadmium indicates that tensile stress may be applied through biofield
treatment on cadmium powder . Sirdeshmukh et al. reported that
lattice strain was generated in cadmium-telluride powder after grinding
and milling the powder for different durations . Hence, it is assumed
that an energy milling might be induced through biofield treatment,
which probably provided the high stress and that might be responsible
for internal strain in treated cadmium. Furthermore, the atomic weight
was increased in cadmium powder by 0.10, 0.41, 0.73 and 0.53 % in T1, T2, T3, and T4 respectively, as compared to control (Figure 1).
Besides, nuclear charge per unit volume was decreased by 0.15, 0.61,
-1.09, and 0.79% in T1, T2, T3, and T4 respectively, as compared to
control (Figure 2). It is possible that the tensile stress induced through
energy milling over unit cell may lead to move away the electron cloud
from their original position . This may be resulted into increase in
atomic size (volume of the atom) and reduced nuclear charge per unit
volume in treated cadmium. On the other hand, the increased atomic
weight and decreased nuclear charge per unit volume suggest that the
proton to neutron ratio may alter in treated cadmium powder. Thus, it
is postulated that a weak reversible reaction may be induced through
biofield treatment, which includes proton-neutron and neutrinos and
that possibly resultant into alteration of neutron to proton ratio .
In addition, the crystallite size was changed from 143.41 nm (control)
to 143.39, 86.03, 47.77, and 143.22nm in T1, T2, T3, and T4 samples,
respectively (Figure 3). It indicates that no significant change in
crystallite size was found in T1 and T4 sample, but it was significantly
reduced in T2 and T3 sample by 50.01 and 66.69% respectively, as
compared to control. It is hypothesized that high volumetric strain
observed in cadmium unit cell which may deformed the crystallite,
which further led to subgrain formation and reduced crystallite size.
Thus, XRD data revealed that biofield treatment has significantly
changed the atomic and structural properties of cadmium powder.
|Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the
latent heat of fusion and melting point in cadmium samples, and the
results are presented in Table 2 and Figure 4. In a solid, substantial
amount of interaction force exists in atomic bonds to hold the atoms at
their positions. Latent heat of fusion is defined as the energy required
to overcome this interaction force to change the phase and it is stored
as potential energy of atoms. However, melting point is related to
kinetic energy of the atoms . Based on the XRD result, DSC was
carried out for control, T1, T2 and T3 samples. Data showed that latent
heat of fusion was changed from 48.8 J/g (control) to 47.08, 49.81,
and 40.77 J/g in T1, T2, and T3 sample respectively, as compared to
control. It indicates that latent heat of fusion was decreased by 3.5 and
16.45% in T1 and T3 sample, respectively as compared to control. On
the contrary the latent heat of fusion was slightly increased by 2.06 % in
treated T2 as compared to control (Figure 4). Our group has previously
reported that biofield treatment has reduced the latent heat of fusion in
lead powder . The reduction of latent heat of fusion after biofield
treatment indicates that treated cadmium sample might have some extra potential energy as compared to control. Thus, it is postulated
that, biofield treatment might have transferred energy to cadmium
powder, which stored as potential energy of atoms. Due to the presence
to extra potential energy in treated cadmium atoms, it may require less
(as compared to control) amount of heat to change the phase from
solid to liquid and reduced latent heat of fusion. Furthermore, data
showed that melting point of cadmium was 322.22, 323.07, 322.39, and
322.74°C in control, T1, T2, and T3 respectively. This data suggest that no significant change was found in melting point of treated cadmium
powder, as compared to control. It indicates that the thermal vibrations
and kinetic energy of the atoms may not be affected through biofield
treatment Therefore, it is expected that energy transferred through
biofield treatment probably stored as potential energy rather than
kinetic energy in treated cadmium powder. Hence, DSC data suggest
that biofield treatment has altered the thermal properties of cadmium
|Particle size and surface area analysis
|Particle size and surface area result of cadmium powder powder
are presented in Table 3 and Figure 5. Data showed that the average
particle size, d50 was significantly reduced from 70.3 μm (control) to
36.7 μm in treated cadmium powder. Particle size, d99 was reduced
from 204.7 μm (control) to 121.3 μm. It indicates that d50 and d99
were reduced by 47.79 and 40.7% respectively in treated cadmium
powder as compared to control. This could be due to fragmentation of
larger particles into smaller particles. However, in order to break the
particles, a sufficient amount of stress energy is required that depends
upon the size of the particles i.e. the smaller the particles, larger the
energy needed [29,30]. Thus, it is assumed that this required stress
energy might be provided to cadmium particles during energy milling
through biofield treatment . Moreover, the significant decrease
in particles size of treated cadmium powder possibly resulted in an
increase in surface area by 156.36% as compared to control. Similar
results of particle size reduction in titanium and antimony had been
reported by our group in previous studies [11,12]. Moreover, in nickelcadmium
batteries, cadmium is used as negative electrode plate, which
oxidised and release electrons during discharging, thus reduction in
particle size of cadmium powder after biofield treatment may increases
the specific energy of batteries [32, 33] Furthermore, Iden et al reported
that increase in surface area improves the kinetics of electrochemical
reactions in batteries . Thus, it is assumed that biofield treated
cadmium could be more useful in electrochemical application as
compared to control.
|Scanning electron microscopy
|Figure 6 shows the SEM micrographs of control and treated
cadmium powder. The micrograph showed spherical shaped particles
in control and treated cadmium powder. Particles were in the size
range of 1–40 μm and 1–30 μm in control and treated cadmium
powder, respectively. It indicates that coarse cadmium particles might
be breakdown into finer and that led to reduced particle size. Besides,
large number of facets were observed over the surface of treated
cadmium particles, as compared to control. It could be due to energy
milling through biofield treatment. In addition, satellite boundaries were observed in control and treated cadmium powder and fractured
surface were found after biofield treatment.
|In summary, XRD results showed that crystallite size was decreased
by 66.69% in treated cadmium as compared to control that might be
due to subgrain formation inside the crystallites through high internal
strain. Thermal analysis data revealed that the latent heat of fusion
was reduced by 16.45% in treated cadmium as compared to control.
It is hypothesized that energy might be transferred through biofield
treatment to cadmium atoms and stored in metal as potential energy.
Thus, higher potential energy in treated cadmium led to reduced latent
heat of fusion. Besides, average particle size was significantly reduced in
treated cadmium by 47.7%, as compared to control, which resulted into
increase surface area upto 156.36 % after biofield treatment. Moreover,
the cadmium with smaller particle size, and high surface area in
electrode could improve the kinetics of electrochemical reactions.
Therefore it is assumed that biofield treated cadmium could be more
useful in nickel-cadmium batteries in electrochemical industries.
|The authors gratefully acknowledge to Dr. Cheng Dong of NLSC, Institute
of Physics and Chinese academy of sciences for providing the facilities to use
PowderX software for analyzing XRD results.
|The generous support of Trivedi Science, Trivedi Master Wellness and Trivedi
Testimonials is gratefully acknowledged.
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