|Building energy consumption; Carbon dioxide emissions;
|Since the Industrial Revolution started in the mid-19th century,
human activities have contributed significantly to climate change
by adding more carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases to the
atmosphere  and consequently disturb the natural processes to
reach equilibrium. With rapid industrialisation, increased population,
urbanisation density and significant change in lifestyle, the burning of
coal, oil and natural gas has emitted approximately 500 billion tons
of carbon dioxide, around half of which remains in the atmosphere
. The impact of these additional carbon dioxide emissions in the
atmosphere contributes to the increasing level of global temperature
and greenhouse gases leading to human-induced global warming effect.
As a result, threat of global warming and climate change is escalating
for the last two decades .
|Global warming and climate change are the contemporary threats
to ecosystem services and biodiversity  that has a huge impact on
the environment, livelihood of communities and economics across
the world [1,5-10]. In response to this scenario, recently, there is a
plethora of research examining influencing factors and the historical
linkage between global warming and climate change . This linkage
is also closely related to the relationship between energy consumption
and carbon dioxide emissions, in which it is reported that if energy
consumption has increased extremely then carbon dioxide emissions
would increase intensely [12,13]. It was reported that concentrations of
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere continued to grow to approximately
390 ppm or 39% above pre-industrial levels in 2010 with the global
average temperature increased by 0.76 °C (0.57 to 0.95°C) between
1850 to 1899 and 2001 to 2005 . Therefore, it is observed the
coordination of economic sectors, energy consumption, and carbon
dioxide emissions forms an important issue as one of environmental
challenges that will have a huge impact on a country’s future. This
paper presents a review on energy consumption and related carbon
dioxide emissions in buildings that lead to a better understanding of
relationship between these scenarios as threat to climate change.
|Building Energy Consumption
|It is well recognised that world energy consumption is divided into three major economic sectors: i) buildings; ii) transportation and; iii)
industrial. Amongst these three sectors, buildings including residential,
commercial, light commercial and institutional signify for about one
third of the total energy consumption compared to other energy-using
sectors [14-16]. It was reported that about 35 to 40% of total energy was
consumed in buildings in the developed countries with 50 to 65% of
electricity consumption . The rate of building energy consumption
in developing countries is also predicted to increase as the nations keep
improving their standard of living and quality of life .
|United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) reported that
approximately 80 to 90% of the energy in buildings is utilised during the
operational phase of a building’s life-cycle, while the other 10 to 20%, is
used during extraction and processing of raw materials, manufacturing
of products and construction . This trend of energy consumption
in buildings is influenced by several key factors. These factors include
population growth, urban density, spatial organisation, economic
growth, building size, building operation, building life, occupant
behaviour, geographic location, climatic conditions and service
demands [19,20]. Thus, in depth studies of the underlying mechanisms
that lead to a deeper understanding of the aspect and impact of energy
consumption in buildings should be established in the future that will
help in finding new strategies and approaches for the overall energy
reduction, creating more sustainable energy consumption patterns and
realising the low-carbon economic development.
|From the building energy consumption percentages, the
demanded services of building in terms of Heating, Ventilation and
Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems account for a substantial amount of energy consumption in buildings which is more than 60% of total
consumption [21,22]. Whilst, lighting accounts for approximately
11 to 20% of total building energy demand . In the UK, energy
consumption for space heating contributes to about 50% of the service
sector energy consumption as reported by IEA . In China, the
air-conditioning and heating system account for 65% of the total
building energy consumption . Kwok and Rajkovich  reported
that the building sector accounted almost 39% of the total primary
energy requirements in the US of which almost 35% was used for
HVAC systems. Furthermore, energy consumption in buildings due
to ventilation and infiltration accounts for approximately 30 to 50%
of total energy consumption . In Europe for instance, with the
consolidation of the demand for thermal comfort and IAQ, the energy
demand for heating from ventilation air tends to reach about 60 to
70% of the total annual energy demand for the building . Since
the envelope of building equipped with HVAC systems is becoming
tighter, the energy consumption resulted by the ventilation can be
much higher than that caused by the heat transfer through the building
shell [27,28]. Besides, in modern building, the ventilation losses may
become more than 50% of total thermal loss . By and large, it can
be seen that energy consumption for HVAC systems in developing
and industrialising countries accounts for half of the energy use in
buildings and one fifth of the total national energy use. With the rapid
pace of changes in lifestyles and technology, combined with economic
prosperity, it is expected that energy consumption in buildings will
continuously to take a large amount of total energy consumption in the future [30,31].
|Carbon dioxide Emissions from Building Energy
|As a result of energy consumption, the building sector contributes
as much as one third of greenhouse gas emissions, primarily
through the use of fossil fuels during their operational phase, both in
developed and developing countries. The 4th Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projected that
building-related greenhouse gas emissions reached 8.6 billion metric
tons (t) CO2 equivalent (e) in 2004, and expected to grow to 26% by
2030, reaching 15.6 billion t CO2e under their high-growth scenario
. From this portion, carbon dioxide emissions from buildings
account for 30 to 40% of the total greenhouse gas emissions which have
been rising steadily since the 1950s . Over the next 25 years, these
emissions are estimated to grow faster than any other economic sectors
|The carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption in
buildings can be divided into two types which are: i) direct emissions
from on-site combustion of fuels for heating and cooking and; ii)
emissions from the end use of electricity utilised to heat, cool and
provide power to buildings. The relation between these two types of
carbon dioxide emissions and building service demands can fluctuate
significantly year-on-year depending on their influencing factors
. To comprehend this, several approaches are used to analysis
the association between the energy consumption and carbon dioxide
emissions, leading to energy conservation and carbon dioxide
emissions reduction [35-37]. The approaches of system accounting for
overall energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions induced
by buildings are exemplified in terms of a combination of process and
input-output analyses . In addition, carbon dioxide emissions and
energy consumption also can be assessed using life cycle assessment
which takes into account all stages in production and operation of
buildings . Based on the approaches, further improvements in environmental and energy management can be made with a concrete
procedure to cover various materials, manpower input, equipment and
|There are multiple options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions
from the energy system while still providing energy services in
buildings [1,40]. This includes the deployment of renewable energy
technologies such as biomass, solar, geothermal, hydro, ocean and
wind, in a sustainable manner that can aid the full range of energy
services required in buildings [41-43]. Most forms of these renewable
energy technologies unlike fossil fuels produce little or no carbon
dioxide emissions [41,44]. Furthermore, significant reduction in
energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from buildings
can be attained through a range of measures including, energy efficient
technologies, smart design, low carbon appliances and high efficiency
HVAC systems that are already well established and extensively used
[1,11,45]. Despite the capability to reduce carbon dioxide emissions,
the contribution of these technologies relies heavily on the economic
competition between these technologies and society aspect and varies
substantially by country and region . Thus, the role of these
technologies in reducing carbon dioxide emissions and mitigating
climate change specifically for energy service in buildings should
be further examined by taking into account the total cost; end-use
efficiency measures; economic analysis; and socio-cultural benefits and
|Today’s building sector utilises a significant percentage of energy
and contributes to almost equal portion of carbon dioxide emissions.
This percentage is predicted to increase in the coming year as a result
of rapid changing in lifestyles and technologies. It was also highlighted
that energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several key
factors such as urban density, spatial organisation, economic growth,
building size, building operation, building life, occupant behaviour,
geographic location, climatic conditions and service demands. Thus, to
overcome this issue and minimise the impact of climate change, new
strategies and approaches by taking into account these factors and the
adoption of renewable energy technologies should be ventured in the
future for reduction of energy consumption in buildings.
|This research is funded by Exploratory Research Grant Scheme Ministry of
Education Malaysia (203/PTEKIND/6730116) and RUI Universiti Sains Malaysia
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