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ISSN: 2161-0533

Orthopedic & Muscular System: Current Research

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Upcoming Special Issues

Special issue entitled: "Joint Replacement: Treatment of Arthritic Disease" has been edited by
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Moschos A. Papadopoulos
Department of Orthodontics
School of Dentistry
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Greece
E-mail: mikepap@dent.auth.gr

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Special issue entitled: "Spinal Injuries and Deformities" has been edited by
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Xu chao jin
Department of histology and embryology
Wenzhou medical college
Cha shan university town, wenzhou
zhe jiang, P.R.China
Tel: 86-577-86689976
E-mail: xuzhaojin@gmail.com
 

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About the Journal

Orthopedic Oncology

An orthopedic oncology is a diagnoses and treatment of primary benign and malignant tumors of the bones. Knowledge of the musculoskeletal anatomy and pathophysiology of the malignancy is required to effectively and efficiently diagnose and treat common disease entities and injuries. Also, a sound knowledge of effects of systemic neoplastic disease is essential. Upon completion of a rotation on the Oncology Service, the resident must demonstrate knowledge of the etiology of oncologic disease affecting the musculosketal system and be able to formulate a differential diagnosis.

Pediatric Orthopedics

Pediatric orthopedics is an Ideal for anyone involved in the care of children with musculoskeletal problems. Comprehensive and user-friendly, it covers the diagnosis and management of pediatric orthopedic issues with an emphasis on the welfare of the whole child. More than 1,700 color illustrations make it easy to visualize everything from normal variations to treatment plans to potential pitfalls, for virtually any pediatric orthopedic challenge you may encounter.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a disease where decreased bone strength increases the risk of a broken bone. It is the most common reason for a broken bone among people who are old. Bones that commonly break include the back bones, the bones of the forearm, and the hip. Until a broken bone occurs there are typically no symptoms. Bones may weaken to such a degree that a break may occur with minor stress or spontaneously. Chronic pain and a decreased ability to carry out normal activities may occur following a broken bone. Osteoporosis may be due to lower than normal peak bone mass and greater than normal bone loss. Bone loss increases after menopause due to lower levels of estrogen.

Foot and Ankle surgery

Foot and ankle surgery is a sub-specialty of orthopedics and podiatry that deals with the treatment, diagnosis and prevention of disorders of the foot and ankle. Surgery is considered to be a last option when more conservative approaches fail to alleviate symptoms. Techniques such as bunionectomies may be used to surgically remove bunions and other foot and ankle deformalities, arthrodesis (or fusion of joint spaces) for inflammatory processes, and surgical reconstruction to treat other deformalities.

Modern orthopedics

Modern orthopedics the general treatment of fracture and other musculoskeletal problems. The study includes Knee replacements, hip replacement system (with a slightly different stem geometry), technique of joint replacement (arthroplasty), use of intramedullary rods to treat fractures of the femur and tibia, remedy for fractures and tuberculosis, etc. Modern orthopedic surgery and musculoskeletal research has sought to make surgery less invasive and to make implanted components better and more durable.

Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery

Orthopedic trauma care covers the spectrum of simple isolated fractures to severe life threatening accidents with multiple broken bones. While many fractures can be treated very well by general orthopedic surgeons, some can benefit from fracture specialists. More significant injuries with multiple broken bones, compound fractures and fractures near a joint, and fractures of the pelvis are more difficult to treat, and benefit the most from specialized care. Additionally, problems with healing including nonunions, infections (osteomyelitis) and healing with poor alignment (malunion) are often treated by fracture specialists.

Osteoporosis Treatment

As defined by the World Health Organization, osteoporosis is a generalized skeletal disorder of low bone mass (thinning of the bone) and deterioration in its architecture, causing susceptibility to fracture. There are two types of osteoporosis: Type I osteoporosis (postmenopausal osteoporosis), Type II osteoporosis (senile osteoporosis). Once the appropriate medical history, physical exam and diagnostic tests have been obtained and a diagnosis of primary osteoporosis has been made, treatment is warranted. Treatment for osteoporosis typically includes education on diet/nutrition, exercise (if no fractures) and medications. The goal of osteoporosis treatment is to prevent fractures.

Osteopenia

Osteopenia is a medical condition in which the protein and mineral content of bone tissue is reduced, but less severely than in osteoporosis. The treatment of osteopenia is controversial. Currently, candidates for therapy include those at the highest risk of osteoporotic bone fracture based on bone mineral density and clinical risk factors. As of 2008, recommendations from the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) are based on risk assessments from the World Health Organization (WHO) Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX).

Prevention of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis (porous bone) is a disease in which bones become weak and are more likely to break (fracture). Without prevention or treatment, osteoporosis can progress without pain or symptoms until a fracture occurs. Fractures from osteoporosis commonly occur in the hip, spine, and wrist. Osteoporosis is not just an "old woman's disease." Although it is more common in white or Asian women older than 50 years of age, osteoporosis can occur in almost any person at any age. Osteoporosis is more or less preventable for most people. Prevention is very important because, while treatments are available for osteoporosis, no cure currently exists.

Joint Replacement: Treatment of Arthritic Disease

A surgical procedure for the treatment of severe arthritis and other disorders in which the normal articulating surfaces of a joint are replaced by metal and plastic prostheses. Joint replacement surgery, or joint arthroplasty is performed most frequently to replace hip joints and knee joints, and involves the complete removal of the damaged joint and tissues to be replaced with an artificial prosthesis. The goal of the procedure is to relieve pain and restore a sense of normal function and mobility into the damaged joint. Joint replacement surgeries are recommended for patients experiencing severe pain and disability as a result of progressive arthritis.

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) also known as degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease, or osteoarthrosis, is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone. Osteoarthritis (OA) also known as degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease, or osteoarthrosis, is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone. The most commonly involved joints are those near the ends of the fingers, at the base of the thumb, neck, lower back, knees, and hips. Joints on one side of the body are often more affected than those on the other. Usually the problems come on over years. It can affect work and normal daily activities. Unlike other types of arthritis only the joints are typically affected.

Orthopaedic Surgery

Orthopaedic surgery is a branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopaedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders. Many developments in orthopedic surgery resulted from experiences during wartime. While orthopaedic surgeons are familiar with all aspects of the musculoskeletal system, many orthopaedists specialize in certain areas, such as the foot and ankle, spine, hip or knee. They may also choose to focus on specific fields like pediatrics, trauma or sports medicine.

Musculoskeletal System

The musculoskeletal system deals with the support, stability, and movement to the body which is made up of the bones of the skeleton, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. In addition to supporting the weight of the body, bones work together with muscles to maintain body position and to produce controlled, precise movements. Without the skeleton to pull against, contracting muscle fibers could not make us sit, stand, walk, or run.

Orthopedic Implants

An orthopedic implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing joint or bone or to support a damaged bone. The medical implant is mainly fabricated using stainless steel and titanium alloys for strength and the plastic coating that is done on it acts as an artificial cartilage. Internal fixation is an operation in orthopedics that involves the surgical implementation of implants for the purpose of repairing a bone. Among the most common types of medical implants are the pins, rods, screws and plates used to anchor fractured bones while they heal.

Hand Surgery

Hand surgery deals with the both surgical and non-surgical treatment of conditions and problems that may take place in the hand or upper extremity. Hand surgery may be practiced by graduates of general surgery, orthopedic surgery and plastic surgery. They are specially trained to operate when necessary. Many hand surgeons are also experts in diagnosing and caring for shoulder and elbow problems.

Knee Arthroscopy

Knee arthroscopy is a technique used to diagnose and treat problems in the knee joint which is a common surgical procedure in which joint is viewed or diagnosed using a small camera which in-turns gives the clear view of the inside knee. This helps them to diagnose and treat knee problems.

Spine Surgery

Spine surgery is traditionally done as "open surgery," meaning the area being operated on is opened with a long incision to allow the surgeon to view and access the anatomy. In recent years, however, technological advances have allowed more back and neck conditions to be treated with a minimally invasive surgical technique.

Surgical Sports Medicine

Orthopaedic or Surgical Sports Medicine is a subspecialty of orthopaedic medicine and sports medicine. Orthopaedic sports medicine is the investigation, preservation, and restoration by medical, surgical, and rehabilitative means to all structures of the musculoskeletal system affected by athletic activity.

Arthroplasty

Arthroplasty is an orthopedic surgical procedure where the articular surface of a musculoskeletal joint is replaced, remodeled, or realigned by osteotomy or some other procedure. It is an elective procedure that is done to relieve pain and restore function to the joint after damage by arthritis or some other type of trauma.

Hip Replacement

Hip replacement is a surgical procedure in which the hip joint is replaced by a prosthetic implant. Hip replacement surgery can be performed as a total replacement or a hemi (half) replacement. Such joint replacement orthopaedic surgery is generally conducted to relieve arthritis pain or in some hip fractures. A total hip replacement (total hip arthroplasty) consists of replacing both the acetabulum and the femoral head while hemiarthroplasty generally only replaces the femoral head.

Orthopedic Biomechanics

Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems such as humans, animals, plants, organs, and cells by means of the methods of mechanics.

Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

Shoulder and Elbow Surgery is related to the shoulder, elbow, and upper extremities. Shoulder and elbow surgery is a condition in which the outer part of the elbow becomes sore and tender. Tennis elbow is an acute or chronic inflammation of the tendons that join the forearm muscles on the outside of the elbow. The forearm muscles and tendons become damaged from overuse — repeating the same strenous motions again and again. This leads to inflammation, pain and tenderness on the outside of the elbow.

Laminectomy

A laminectomy is a surgical procedure that removes a portion of the vertebral bone called the lamina. At its most minimally invasive, the procedure requires only small skin incisions. The back muscles are pushed aside rather than cut and the parts of the vertebra adjacent to the lamina are left intact. Recovery occurs within a few days. The lamina is a posterior arch of the vertebral bone lying between the spinous process and the more lateral pedicles and the transverse processes of each vertebra.

Bone Grafting

Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that replaces missing bone in order to repair bone fractures that are extremely complex, pose a significant health risk to the patient, or fail to heal properly. Bone generally has the ability to regenerate completely but requires a very small fracture space or some sort of scaffold to do so. Bone grafts may be autologous, allograft, or synthetic with similar mechanical properties to bone.

Rotator Cuff Tendon

Rotator cuff tendinitis affects the tendons and muscles that help move the shoulder joint. Tendinitis means that these tendons are inflamed or irritated. Rotator cuff tendinitis may also be called impingement syndrome. Tendinitis of the rotator cuff usually occurs over time. It can be the result of keeping the shoulder in one position over a period of time, sleeping on the shoulder every night, or participating in activities that require extending the arm over the head.

 

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