|Special issue entitled: "Joint Replacement: Treatment of Arthritic Disease" has been edited by|
|Special issue entitled: "Spinal Injuries and Deformities" has been edited by|
Xu chao jin
An orthopedic oncology is a diagnoses and treatment of primary benign and malignant tumors of the bones. Knowledge of the musculoskeletal anatomy and pathophysiology of the malignancy is required to effectively and efficiently diagnose and treat common disease entities and injuries. Also, a sound knowledge of effects of systemic neoplastic disease is essential. Upon completion of a rotation on the Oncology Service, the resident must demonstrate knowledge of the etiology of oncologic disease affecting the musculosketal system and be able to formulate a differential diagnosis.
Pediatric orthopedics is an Ideal for anyone involved in the care of children with musculoskeletal problems. Comprehensive and user-friendly, it covers the diagnosis and management of pediatric orthopedic issues with an emphasis on the welfare of the whole child. More than 1,700 color illustrations make it easy to visualize everything from normal variations to treatment plans to potential pitfalls, for virtually any pediatric orthopedic challenge you may encounter.
Osteoporosis is a disease where decreased bone strength increases the risk of a broken bone. It is the most common reason for a broken bone among people who are old. Bones that commonly break include the back bones, the bones of the forearm, and the hip. Until a broken bone occurs there are typically no symptoms. Bones may weaken to such a degree that a break may occur with minor stress or spontaneously. Chronic pain and a decreased ability to carry out normal activities may occur following a broken bone. Osteoporosis may be due to lower than normal peak bone mass and greater than normal bone loss. Bone loss increases after menopause due to lower levels of estrogen.
Foot and ankle surgery is a sub-specialty of orthopedics and podiatry that deals with the treatment, diagnosis and prevention of disorders of the foot and ankle. Surgery is considered to be a last option when more conservative approaches fail to alleviate symptoms. Techniques such as bunionectomies may be used to surgically remove bunions and other foot and ankle deformalities, arthrodesis (or fusion of joint spaces) for inflammatory processes, and surgical reconstruction to treat other deformalities.
Modern orthopedics the general treatment of fracture and other musculoskeletal problems. The study includes Knee replacements, hip replacement system (with a slightly different stem geometry), technique of joint replacement (arthroplasty), use of intramedullary rods to treat fractures of the femur and tibia, remedy for fractures and tuberculosis, etc. Modern orthopedic surgery and musculoskeletal research has sought to make surgery less invasive and to make implanted components better and more durable.
Orthopedic trauma care covers the spectrum of simple isolated fractures to severe life threatening accidents with multiple broken bones. While many fractures can be treated very well by general orthopedic surgeons, some can benefit from fracture specialists. More significant injuries with multiple broken bones, compound fractures and fractures near a joint, and fractures of the pelvis are more difficult to treat, and benefit the most from specialized care. Additionally, problems with healing including nonunions, infections (osteomyelitis) and healing with poor alignment (malunion) are often treated by fracture specialists.
As defined by the World Health Organization, osteoporosis is a generalized skeletal disorder of low bone mass (thinning of the bone) and deterioration in its architecture, causing susceptibility to fracture. There are two types of osteoporosis: Type I osteoporosis (postmenopausal osteoporosis), Type II osteoporosis (senile osteoporosis). Once the appropriate medical history, physical exam and diagnostic tests have been obtained and a diagnosis of primary osteoporosis has been made, treatment is warranted. Treatment for osteoporosis typically includes education on diet/nutrition, exercise (if no fractures) and medications. The goal of osteoporosis treatment is to prevent fractures.
Osteopenia is a medical condition in which the protein and mineral content of bone tissue is reduced, but less severely than in osteoporosis. The treatment of osteopenia is controversial. Currently, candidates for therapy include those at the highest risk of osteoporotic bone fracture based on bone mineral density and clinical risk factors. As of 2008, recommendations from the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) are based on risk assessments from the World Health Organization (WHO) Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX).
Osteoporosis (porous bone) is a disease in which bones become weak and are more likely to break (fracture). Without prevention or treatment, osteoporosis can progress without pain or symptoms until a fracture occurs. Fractures from osteoporosis commonly occur in the hip, spine, and wrist. Osteoporosis is not just an "old woman's disease." Although it is more common in white or Asian women older than 50 years of age, osteoporosis can occur in almost any person at any age. Osteoporosis is more or less preventable for most people. Prevention is very important because, while treatments are available for osteoporosis, no cure currently exists.