It is a dominant autosomal genetic disorder caused by germ line mutations in mismatch repair genes. Human mismatch repair genes play a crucial role in genetic stability of DNA, the inactivation of which results in an increased rate of mutation and often a loss of mismatch repair function. Recent studies have shown that certain mismatch repair genes are involved in the regulation of key cellular processes including apoptosis.
Thus, differential expression of mismatch repair genes particularly the contributions of MLH1 and MSH2 play important roles in therapeutic resistance to certain cytotoxic drugs such as cisplatin that is used normally as chemoprevention. An understanding of the role of mismatch repair genes in molecular signaling mechanism of apoptosis.