Pain mechanism depends on opioids interact with the opiate receptors at different CNS levels. These opiate receptors are the normal target sites for neurotransmitters and endogenous opiates such as the endorphins and enkephalins. As a result of binding at the receptor in subcortical sites, secondary changes which lead to a change in the electrophysiological properties of these neurons and modulation of the ascending pain information. on the basis of the anatomy of the peripheral and central nervous systems and the role of nociceptors in pain perception. It includes discussion of the concept of persistent pain and presents information on the embryologic origins of pain. Finally it addresses the modulatory role of anxiety, fear, and stress on pain.
Cold provides short-term pain relief and also limits swelling by reducing blood flow to the injured area. When icing injuries, never apply ice directly to the skin (unless it is moving as in ice massage) and never leave ice on an injury for more than 20 minutes at a time. Longer exposure can damage your skin and even result in frostbite. A good rule is to apply cold compresses for 15 minutes and then leave them off long enough for the skin to re-warm.
Special Issue on Sports Medicine and Exercise physiology
Keeping all these instances into consideration, Journal of Sports Medicine and Doping Studies Invites paper submission for our special issue based on “sports medicine and Exercise physiology” and “sports management” from quality authors till 30th of September 2015. All these articles would be published in October issue of our Journal.