San Luis Obispo Clinic, USA
Diplomate, American Board of Family Medicine: Certified, July 1982: recertified,’88,’94,’00,’06 Certificate of Added Qualification (CAQ) in Sports Medicine expired 2009 Family Physician, Veterans Health Administration, San Luis Obispo Community Based Outpatient Clinic, since November 2013
Our initial matched single-blind pilot study tested the effect of Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice on symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in Congolese refugees. After initial random assignment to the TM group, 21 TM group participants were then instructed in TM and matched with refugees in the control group on age, sex, and baseline scores on the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist–Civilian (PCL-C). All participants completed the PCL-C measure of PTS symptoms at baseline, and 30-day and 135-day posttests. The PCL-C scores in the control group trended upward. In contrast, the PCL-C scores in the TM group went from 65 on average at baseline indicating severe PTS symptoms to below 30 on average after 30 days of TM practice, and remained low at 135 days. Effect size was high (d > 1). The follow-up pilot study tested whether Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice would significantly reduce symptoms of PTS in refugees within 10 days. The PCL was administered to non-matched wait-list controls from the previous study three times over a 90-day period. Within 8 days of the third baseline measure, 11 refugees were taught TM, then re-tested 10 days and 30 days after instruction. Average PCL scores dropped 29.9 points from 77.9 to 48.0 in 10 days, then dropped another 12.7 points to 35.3 at 30 days. Effect size at 10 days was high. There were no adverse events. All participants completed the study and were able to practice TM.