ISSN: 2155-9589
Journal of Membrane Science & Technology
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Treating Alzheimer Disease: Is Diet and Exercise more Effective than Small Molecule Therapy?

Kayla C. Castellani1, Elizabeth A. Perry2, George Perry2* and Rudy J. Castellani3
1College of Osteopathic Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
2College of Sciences, University of Texas, San Antonio, Texas, USA
3Division of Neuropathology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Corresponding Author : George Perry Ph.D
Professor, College of Sciences, University of Texas
San Antonio, Texas, USA
Tel: 210-458-4450
Fax: 210-458-4445
Received December 06, 2012; Accepted December 08, 2012; Published December 11, 2012
Citation: Castellani KC, Perry EA, Perry G, Castellani RJ (2013) Treating Alzheimer Disease: Is Diet and Exercise more Effective than Small Molecule Therapy? J Membra Sci Technol 3: e111. doi:10.4172/2155-9589.1000e111
Copyright: © 2013 Castellani KC, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Related article at
DownloadPubmed DownloadScholar Google

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Membrane Science & Technology

As Alzheimer’s disease (AD) therapeutic research continues to pursue small molecule targeting, disease modifying therapy remains elusive [1]. Indeed, despite a wide array of pharmacologic agents at our disposal and the design and completion of dozens of clinical trials targeting Amyloid-beta (Aβ), no approach has shown any progress whatsoever in ameliorating the disease process, and affected patients continue to suffer and expire on the same cognitive trajectory as they have since the dawn of the species. One major defect in the so-called amyloid cascade hypothesis is that the hypothesis itself, as well as essentially all experimental modeling, is derived entirely from Mendelian conditions, i.e. familial autosomal dominant disease [2]. Such conditions are not only exceedingly rare (total number of amyloid β protein precursor mutation kindreds in the world number less than 100, for example), but encompass lifelong defects in cellular physiology. The repeated failures in sporadic AD therapy may simply be due to the inapplicability of this small molecule construct to something as complex as age-related sporadic neurodegeneration. Indeed, an in depth analysis of clinicopathological correlations in sporadic disease reveals that the pathology of AD (and a spectrum of chronic diseases), is indicative of a response to the aging environment, possibly even a productive response, in which case targeting such a response would be ineffective at best, and deleterious at worst. This is to say nothing of the empirical problem with targeting a single small molecule within the scope of the neuronal proteome, comprised of many thousands of protein transcripts at any give time.
It may be time to embrace an aggressively holistic approach to such a disease process that is intimately intertwined with age and the simple passage of time. The many risk factors for sporadic AD, comprised for example of cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, head trauma and neuroinflammation, neuroendocrinology, and transition metals, suggest that AD is a whole organism disorder that cannot be addressed by any singular construct, least of all lesion targeting. The role of a healthy multi-nutrient diet [3], as both a direct (e.g. antioxidants) and indirect (e.g. reducing obesity and atherosclerosis related risk factors) means of prevention and treatment is already as effective as the most sophisticated of clinical trials to date, and probably more so. Moreover, as the hormesis concept becomes better developed, a judicious exercise program may similarly be of measurable, whole organism benefit, just as hormetic kinetics of Aβ may be operant as a potential factor in the physiology-pathology continuum [4]. Such processes may further underlie the concept of mental “activity,” and the influence of brain usage in the form of educational attainment, as a means of defense against cognitive decline, associated with a given pathological load. At present, it appears that effective therapy for AD associated neurodegeneration is in the distant future and may well take a number of generations, as well as a paradigm shift for measurable progress to occur. Nevertheless, the benefits of something as simple as a healthy diet, mental activity, and a regular exercise program, in combating oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and the aging process has already proven beneficial to both the quality and quantity of life. Small molecule therapy based on the amyloid cascade model has achieved neither, and unless a different paradigm is pursued, likely never will.

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Share This Article
Relevant Topics
Disc Advanced Bioprocess Products
Disc Advanced DNA Sequencing
Disc Advances in Bioprocess Technology
Disc Advances in Biotechniques
Disc Advances in Food Bioprocess Technology
Disc Agricultural biotechnology
Disc Animal and Tissue Engineering
Disc Animal biotechnology
Disc Applied Biotechnology
Disc Aquaporins
Disc Biocatalysis
Disc Biology Engineering
Disc Biomaterial implants
Disc Bioprocess Engineering
Disc Bioprocess Industry and Market Analysis
Disc Bioprocess Manufacturing
Disc Bioprocess Modelling
Disc Bioprocess and Systems Engineering
Disc Bioprocessing and Biopharma Manufacturing
Disc Biotechnology applications
Disc Cardiovascular biomaterials
Disc Chemistry of Biology
Disc Colloids
Disc Desalination
Disc Ethics in Synthetic Biology
Disc Gene Synthesis
Disc Industrial Bioprocessing
Disc Industrial Biotechnology
Disc Ion Exchange
Disc Membrane Bioreactor
Disc Membrane Distillation
Disc Membrane Emulsification
Disc Membrane Filtration
Disc Membrane Permeability
Disc Modern Analytical Chemistry
Disc Modern Chemistry Formulaes
Disc Modern Experimental Chemistry
Disc Modern Heterocyclic Chemistry
Disc Modern Inorganic Chemistry
Disc Modern Nuclear Chemistry
Disc Modern Organometallic Chemistry
Disc Modern Physical Organic Chemistry
Disc Modern Stoichiochemistry
Disc Modern Theoretical Chemistry
Disc Nano biotechnology
Disc Osmotic Distillation
Disc P4 medicine
Disc Pharmaceutical Bioprocessing
Disc Reverse Osmosis
Disc Reverse Osmosis filter
Disc Reverse osmosis system
Disc Semipermeable layer
Disc Stem Cell Bioprocessing
Disc Surface Science
Disc Synthetic Biology
Disc Synthetic Biology medicine
Disc Synthetic Biotechnology
Disc Synthetic Genomics
Disc Synthetic biology drugs
Disc Ultrafiltration
Disc Ultrasound Technologies in Food Industry
Disc White/industrial biotechnology
Recommended Journals
Disc Modern Chemistry Journal
Disc Bioprocessing & Biotechniques Journal
Disc Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Journal
Disc Biotechnology & Biomaterials Journal
Disc Synthetic and Systems Biology Journal
  View More»
Recommended Conferences
Disc 11th Nanoscience and Molecular Nanotechnology
Sept 26-28, 2016, London, UK
View More»
Article Tools
Disc Export citation
Disc Share/Blog this article
Article usage
  Total views: 11148
  [From(publication date):
June-2013 - Jul 02, 2016]
  Breakdown by view type
  HTML page views : 7415
  PDF downloads :3733

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

OMICS International Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
OMICS International Conferences 2016-17
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2016 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version