Pk parameter                                   In normal rats                                    In diabetic rats
   Pioglitazone    PIO+CURC(SDI)    PIO+CURC(MDI)    Pioglitazone    PIO + CURC(SDI)    PIO + CURC(MDI)
Cmax (µg/mL) 4.15 ± 0.78 4.43 ± 1.14 3.78 ± 0.89 4.37 ± 0.14 4.46 ± 0.36 4.06 ± 1.01
Tmax (hrs) 2 ± 0 1 ± 0 2 ± 0 2 ± 0 1 ± 0 2 ± 0
AUC0 to n (µg.hr/ mL) 25.28 ± 9.45 28.18 ± 6.16 33.34 ± 9.18* 33.63 ± 7.14 34.65 ± 9.11 41.33 ± 10.38*
AUCtotal (µg.hr/ mL) 26.86 ± 10.98 30.28 ± 29.07 36.87 ± 21.09** 37.08 ± 8.43 38.20 ± 5.96 46.82 ± 8.59*
AUMC0 to n (µg.hr mL) 154.37 ± 19.23 176.38 ± 21.15* 255.47 ± 17.93** 244.61 ± 31.29 254.71 ± 23.71 337.41 ± 48.05**
AUMC total (µg.hr/ mL) 205.42 ± 32.74 245.03 ± 28.02* 375.80 ± 39.18** 361.81 ± 35.91 374.81 ± 40.92* 529.36 ± 61.43**
T1/2 (hrs) 5.63 ± 1.76 6.00 ± 1.09 7.04 ± 2.03  6.89 ± 1.09 6.82 ± 1.10 7.63 ± 0.41
MRT (hrs) 7.64 ± 2.09 8.09 ± 2.79 10.19 ± 1.45* 9.75 ± 1.14 9.81 ± 1.03 11.30 ± 0.78*
Cl (mL/hr) 0.37 ± 0.05 0.33 ± 0.02 0.27 ± 0.03** 0.26 ± 0.03 0.26 ± 0.07 0.21 ± 0.04*
Vd (mL) 3.02 ± 0.29 2.86 ± 0.19 2.75 ± 0.24 2.68 ± 0.45 2.57 ± 0.69 2.35 ±  0.35
Vdss (mL) 2.84 ± 0.17 2.67 ± 0.15 2.76 ± 0.20 2.63 ± 0.39 2.56 ± 0.51 2.41 ± 0.48
Mean +/- SD, ***significant at p<0.001, **significant at p<0.01,*significant at p<0.05 compared to pioglitazone control
SDI: Single Dose Interaction; MDI: Multiple Dose Interaction; PIO: Pioglitazone; CURC: Curcumin
Table 1: Mean Pharmacokinetic parameters of pioglitazone in presence of curcumin (SDI and MDI) in normal rats and in diabetic rats.