Time (hr)                        PIO               PIO + CURC (SDI)                 PIO + CURC (MDI)
  Mean glucose level (mg/dL)   % glucose reduction   Mean glucose level (mg/dL)   % glucose reduction   Mean glucose level (mg/dL)   % glucose reduction
0 276.19 ± 12.45 0 ± 0 274.47 ± 29.08 0 ± 0 253.16 ± 16.42 0 ± 0
0.5 247.36 ± 21.08 10.43 ± 2.18 230.14 ± 16.15 16.15 ± 1.49* 201.37 ± 21.19 20.45 ± 2.83**
1 223.34 ± 10.12 19.13 ± 3.15 215.15 ± 8.11 21.61 ± 2.83 190.92 ± 14.50 24.58 ± 2.91*
2 148.5 ± 6.08 46.23 ± 4.96 133.98 ± 13.08* 51.18 ± 5.64* 108.62 ± 12.10* 57.09 ± 6.93**
4 152.94 ± 8.13 44.62 ± 3.03 138.09 ± 8.90* 49.68 ± 3.28* 101.17 ± 11.39* 60.03 ± 5.20**
8 161.01 ± 2.14 41.70 ± 2.48 148.44 ± 6.97 45.91 ± 4.05 120.77 ± 7.05 52.29 ± 4.19**
24 215.37 ± 18.72 22.02 ± 1.39 198.65 ± 19.18* 27.62 ± 1.18* 166.43 ± 14.30 34.25 ± 2.03**
Mean +/- SD; ***significant at p<0.001;**significant at p<0.01; *significant at p<0.05 compared to pioglitazone control
SDI: Single Dose Interaction; MDI: Multiple Dose Interaction; PIO: Pioglitazone; CURC: Curcumin
Table 5: Mean blood glucose changes in diabetic rats after oral administration of pioglitazone, curcumin and their combination (SDI and MDI) in diabetic rats.