N Population Years of follow up Moderately increase Albuminuria (A2) Severely increased albuminuria (A3) Progression A2 to A3 CKD Regression to A1
Viberti et al.  1982 [9] 63 Insulin dependent DM 14 12.6% 14% 88%    
Andersen 1983 [17] 1303 Type 1 DM 25   41%   41%  
Mogensen and Christensen 1984 [10] 43 type 1DM (A1, A2) 1969-1976 and 1983 32% 28% 86%    
Mathiesen 1984 [15] 227 71 type 1DM (A1, A2)   6   22.5% 4% 14%    
Borch-Johnsen 1985 [18] 1030 Type 1 DM 1933-1952 To 1982   39%      
Parving  1988 [16] 982 Age less than 41 with insulin dependent DM Cross-sectional 22% 18%      
Hovind 2003 [11] 600 Type 1 DM 1965-1984 to 2000   31.1 (1965-69) to 13.7% (1979-84)      
Perkins 2003 [21] 386 Type 1 DM (A2) 6 45% 15%     50%
Nordwall 2004 [12] 269 Type 1 DM from childhood 1961-1985   30% (1961-65) to 13% (1971-75)      
Steinke 2005 [19] 170 type 1 DM (A1) 5 4.7%       64%
Zerbini 2006 [20] 146 Type 1 DM (A1) 4 18.5%        
De Boer 2011 [14] 1441 Type 1 DM (A2) 13 22.5% 28%   15% 40%
Table 3: Prevalence of Albuminuria, progression and regression in type 1 DM