Clinical phase Target cells Vector Gene Outcome ClinicalTrials.gov identifier Reference
I/II Tumor cells Encapsulated cells overexpressing the therapeutic gene Cytochrome P450 2B1 14 treated patients: 4 with tumor regression, 10 with stable disease. 1 year survival double than with gemcitabine Not available [39]
I Tumor cells Retrovirus Cytocidal N-terminal truncated cyclin G1 (Rexin G) Treatment well tolerated but no evidence of anti-tumor activity Not available [59]
I/II Tumor cells Retrovirus Cytocidal N-terminal truncated cyclin G1 (Rexin G) Treatment is safe. Dose response relationship between treatment and overall survival NCT00504998 [60]
I Tumor cells Adenovirus Thymidine kinase Treatment is safe and needs further validation in phase II trials Not available [61]
I/II Tumor cells Plasmid DNA Diphtheria Toxin A chain Treatment is safe but effectiveness on overall survival needs to be proven NCT00711997 [64]
I Patient’s T cells Non replicative canarypoxvirus CEA & B7.1 Treatment is not toxic. 3 patients out of 12 with stable disease and signs of anti-tumor immune response. Not available [65]
I Patient’T cells Vaccinia virus CEA & MUCIN-1& co-stimulatory genes Little adverse effects of the treatment. 5 out of 8 patients had T cell-specific response and increased overall survival Not available [66]
I Tumor cells Adenovirus IL-12 Treatment is safe. 5 assessable patients with pancreatic cancer; 2 stable disease, 3 progressive disease Not available [67]
III Tumor cells Adenovirus TNF-α Treatment is safe but not effective NCT00868114 [68]
Table 1: Completed Clinical Trials of Gene Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer.