FITC-insulin treatment (40-50 µg/kg)

Route of administration

Dose regimen

Averaged fluorescence level (pdu*)

Microemulsion

Intranasal

1x1d

86.3±36.1 (n=13) S1, S2

Aqueous solution

Intranasal

1x1d

51.4±13.2 (n=13)

Aqueous solution

IV

1x1d

49. 6±10.1 (n=14)

Microemulsion

Intranasal

2x1d

138.5±80. 6 (n=10) S1, S2

Aqueous solution

Intranasal

2x1d

48.7±5.5 (n=14)

Aqueous solution

IV

2x1d

46.0±8.5 (n=11)

Microemulsion

Intranasal

3x1d

65.7±17.3 (n=13) S1

Aqueous solution

Intranasal

3x1d

36.4±4.5 (n=15) S2

Aqueous solution

IV

3x1d

62.3±20.6 (n=13) S1

Microemulsion

Intranasal

1x1d for 5d

109.4±45.5 (n=15) S1

Aqueous solution

Intranasal

1x1d for 5d

51.6±7.1 (n=31)

*pdu is the abbreviation for ‘procedure defined unit’
Table 1: Determination of fluorescence levels in brain tissue slices using MATLAB image processing. Statistically significant difference (ANOVA, p<0.01) compared with data obtained after administrations at the same dose regimen of nasal aqueous solutionS1 and IV aqueous solutionS2.
1x1d = 24 hours after 1 application;
2x1d = 24 hours after 2 applications at t=0 and 12h;
3x1d = 24 hours after 3 applications at t=0, 8h, and 16h;
1x1d for 5d= at day 5 after 5 daily applications.