Figure 3: TEM micrographs of the conjugative junctions of mating cells.
a-d) The conjugative junctions of mating cells in the control (a, 0 mmol/L) and bulk alumina groups (b: 0.5 mmol/L, c: 5 mmol/L, d: 50 mmol/L). No conjugation was found; e-g) the conjugative junctions of mating cells in the nano-alumina groups (e, 0.5 mmol/L; f, 5.0 mmol/L; g, 50.0 mmol/L). The red arrows indicate that conjugations occurred between two bacteria or multiple bacteria. The numbers of conjugations of nano-alumina groups were much greater in these groups than in the controls and the bulk alumina groups, and the 5 mmol/L nano-alumina group had the greatest number of conjugations. Scale bars: 2 μm.