Rotation speed (rpm)

Carbon source utilization (%)

Immobilized cells
(g.l-1)

Free cells (g.l-1)

Mf/i* (%)

Glucose

Ethanol

0
15
30

94.8
100.0
20.13

100.0
100.0
50.45

85.40
70.36
25.06

2.35
15.03
9.24

2.75
21.43
36.87

*Mf/I is the mass ratio of free cells to immobilized cells.
Table 2: Performance of VRICR of R. erythropolis during the first week of operation (cell attachment period) at various rotation speeds.