Adapted from Department of Plant Pathology of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

Figure 2: Confounding effects of climate change on mould spore count and final common pathway to mycotic disease. Variables that are associated with exposure and confounder (e.g., deforestation) and with confounder and outcome (e.g., light-dark cycles) need to be accounted for when designing and analyzing these types of research studies in order to avoid bias (see text). Modified and used by permission from the University of Wisconsin, Department of Plant Pathology (Dr. Caitilyn Allen).