No Type Category Sub-
Index
Description MDV Unit
1 Wind Weather & climate CC
D
CCD
Average annual excess wind over the last five years (summing speeds on days during which the maximum recorded wind speed is greater than 20% higher than the 30 year average maximum wind speed for that month) averaged over all reference climate stations. 1 days/yr
2 Dry Weather & climate CC
D
AF
W
CCD
Average annual rainfall deficit (mm) over the past 5 years for all months with >20% lower rainfall than the 30 year monthly average, averaged over all reference climate stations. 2 mm/station/ yr
3 Wet Weather & climate CC
D
AF
W
CCD
Average annual excess rainfall (mm) over the past 5 years for all months with >20% higher rainfall than the 30 year monthly average, averaged over all reference climate stations. 1 mm/station/ year
4 Hot Weather & climate CC
D
CCD
Average annual excess heat (degrees Farenheit) over the past 5 years for all days more than 9F (5°C) hotter than the 30 year mean monthly maximum, averaged over all reference climate stations. 4 degrees/yr
5 Cold Weather & climate D
CCD
Average annual heat deficit (degrees) over the past 5 years for all days more than 5°C cooler than the 30 year mean monthly minimum, averaged over all reference climate stations. 3 degrees/yr
7 Volcano Geology D Cumulative volcano risk as the weighted number of volcanoes with the potential for eruption greater than or equal to a Volcanic Explosively Index of 2 (VEI 2) within 100km of the country land boundary (divided by the area of land). 1 VEI Units/million sq km
8 Earth-quake Geology D Cumulative earthquake energy within 100km of country land boundaries measured as Local Magnitude (ML) ≥ 6.0 and occurring at a depth of less than or equal to fifteen km (≤15km depth) over 5 years (divided by land area) 1 Number ML >= 6, Depth <= 15km
9 Tsunami Geology D Number of tsunamis or storms surges with run-up greater than 2 metres above Mean High Water Spring tide (MHWS) per 1000km coastline since 1900 1 Number since 1900 >2m run-up
10 Slides Geology D Number of slides recorded in the last 5 years (EMDAT definitions), divided by land area 1 Slides/million sq km land
11 Land Geography CC
CBD
Total land area (km2) 4 sq km
12 Dispers-ion Geography CC
CBD
Ratio of length of borders (land and maritime) to total land area 4 km/1000 sq km
13 Isolation Geography CBD Distance to nearest continent (km) 6 km
14 Relief Geography CC
CCD
CBD
Altitude range (highest point subtracted from the lowest point in country) 1 m
15 Lowlands Geography CC
CCD
CBD
Percentage of land area less than or equal to 50m above sea level 1 %
16 Borders Geography CBD Number of land and sea borders (including EEZ) shared with other countries 2 number
18 Openness Resources
&
Services
AF
CBD
Average annual USD freight imports over the past 5 years by any means per km2 land area 1 USD Thousands/sq km land
19 Migrat-ory Resources
&
Services
AF
CBD
Number of known species that migrate outside the territorial area at any time during their life spans (including land and all aquatic species) / area of land 3 Spp/1000 sq km land
20 Endemics Resources
&
Services
CBD Number of known endemic species per million square km land area 6 Spp/1,000,000 sq km land
21 Introduc-tions Resources
&
Services
AF
CBD
Number of introduced species per 1000 square km of land area 2 Spp/1,000 sq km land
22 Endang-ered Resources
&
Services
CBD Number of endangered and vulnerable species per 1000 sq km land area (IUCN definitions) 4 Spp/1,000 sq km land
23 Extin-ctions Resources
&
Services
AF
CBD
Number of species known to have become extinct since 1900 per 1000 sq km land area (IUCN definitions). 4 Spp/1,000 sq km land
25 Loss Veg Resources
&
Services
AF
W
CCD
CBD
Net percentage change in natural vegetation cover over the last five years 5 % change (-ve = loss)
26 Fragment Resources
&
Services
AF
CBD
Total length of all roads in a country divided by land area 1 km/sq km
27 Degrada-tion Resources
&
Services
W
CCD
Percent of land area that is either severely or very severely degraded (FAO/AGL Terrastat definitions) 7 %
28 Reserves Resources
&
Services
AF
W
CBD
Percent of terrestrial land area legally set aside as no take reserves 1 % of land area
30 Farming Resources
&
Services
AF
W
Annual tonnage of intensively farmed animal products (includes aquaculture, pigs, poultry) produced over the last five years per square km land area. 5 t/sq km/yr
31 Fertili-zers Resources
&
Services
HH
AF
W
Average annual intensity of fertilizer use over the total land area over the last 5 years. 2 kg/sq km/yr
32 Pesticides Resources
&
Services
HH
AF
Average annual pesticides used as kg/km2/year over total land area over last 5 years. 2 kg/sq km/yr
33 Biotech Resources
&
Services
AF Cumulative number of deliberate field trials of genetically modified organisms conducted in the country since 1986 1 Total number trials
36 Water Resources
&
Services
HH
AF
CCD
Average annual water usage as percentage of renewable water resources over the last 5 years 7 %
37 Air Resources
&
Services
HH Average annual SO2 emissions over the last 5 years 1 t /sq km/yr
38 Waste Resources
&
Services
-- Average annual net amount of generated and imported toxic, hazardous and municipal wastes per square km land area over the last 5 years 1 t/km2/yr
39 Treat-ment Resources
&
Services
HH
W
Mean annual percent of hazardous, toxic and municipal waste effectively managed and treated over the past 5 years. 7 %
40 Industry Resources
&
Services
  Average annual use of electricity for industry over the last 5 years per square km of land 1 toe/km2
41 Spills Resources
&
Services
-- Total number of spills of oil and hazardous substances greater than 1000 litres on land, in rivers or within territorial waters per million km coast during the last five years 1 Number of spills/million km coasts
42 Mining Resources
&
Services
-- Average annual mining production (include all surface and subsurface mining and quarrying) per km2 of land area over the past 5 years. 7 t/km2/yr
43 Sanita-tion Resources
&
Services
HH
W
Density of population without access to safe sanitation (WHO definitions) 4 people/km2
44 Vehicles Resources
&
Services
-- Number of vehicles per square km of land area (most recent data) 1 vehicles /km2
45 Density Human
Populations
CC
D
W
Total human population density (number per km2 land area) 1 people/km2
46 Growth Human
Populations
W Annual human population growth rate over the last 5 years 6 %
47 Tourists Human
Populations
-- Average annual number of international tourists per km2 land over the past 5 years. 7 people/km2/yr
49 Agreements Human Populations -- Number of environmental treaties in force in a country 2 treaties
50 Conflicts Human
Populations
-- Average number of conflict years per decade within the country over the past 50 years. 1 Average conflict years/decade
Table 3: Summary of environmental vulnerability indices (EVI) for MDV.