Treatment time

        NC

       PC

Black Dye Commercial Product Concentrations (mg/L)

           1

         10

        100

       1000

20 h treatment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CNA

GML

0.040 (0.011)

1.090 (0.013)ª

0.880 (0.023)

0.860 (0.021)

0.980 (0.019)

1.430 (0.021)ª

CL

0.040 (0.011)

0.500 (0.021)

0.480 (0.017)

0.630 (0.018)ª

0.910 (0.026)ª

0.940 (0.013)ª

CA

0.050 (0.012)

0.660 (0.024)ª

0.640 (0.019)ª

0.760 (0.010)ª

0.580 (0.014)ª

0.550 (0.014)ª

CM

0.100 (0.016)

0.090 (0.016)

0.130 (0.015)

0.180 (0.016)

0.290 (0.018)

0.350 (0.016)

PM

0

0.010 (0.000)

0.030 (0.001)

0.050 (0.001)

0.040 (0.001)

0.120 (0.002)

PI

0

0.040 (0.001)

0.030 (0.001)

0.060 (0.002)

0.060 (0.002)

0.130 (0.003)

CB

0.020 (0.008)

0.170 (0.019)

0.240 (0.014)

0.380 (0.016)ª

0.310 (0.021)

0.160 (0.012)

MU

0

0.070 (0.002)

0.050 (0.001)

0.230 (0.010)

0.240 (0.010)

0.250 (0.011)

CNA

0.250 (0.017)

2.630 (0.012)ª

2.480 (0.015)ª

3.150 (0.026)ª

3.410 (0.020)ª

3.930 (0.021)ª

MNB

MN

0.290 (0.013)

2.010 (0.014)ª

1.570 (0.017)ª

1.390 (0.013)ª

1.230 (0.017)

1.610 (0.014)ª

CBr

0.050 (0.014)

0.690 (0.025)ª

0.310 (0.016)

0.190 (0.014)

0.560 (0.020)ª

0.390 (0.019)ª

MNB

0.340 (0.013)

2.700 (0.014)ª

1.880 (0.017)ª

1.580 (0.013)ª

1.790 (0.017)ª

2.000 (0.014)ª

AP
NE

AP

0

0

0.010 (0.004)

0

0

0.190 (0.012)ª

NE

0

1.370 (0.023)ª

1.030 (0.020)ª

1.150 (0.021)ª

2.730 (0.035)ª

1.850 (0.024)ª

APNE

0

1.370 (0.023)ª

1.040 (0.022)ª

1.150 (0.021)ª

2.730 (0.035)ª

2.040 (0.033)ª

TOTAL

0.590 (0.011)

6.700 (0.011)ª

5.400 (0.018)

5.880 (0.012)ª

7.930 (0.014)ª

7.970 (0.021)ª

48 h treatment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CNA

GML

0.190 (0.021)

1.200 (0.011)

0.390 (0.014)

0.380 (0.017)

0.320 (0.016)

0.320 (0.012)

CL

0.090 (0.017)

1.030 (0.013)ª

1.000 (0.016)ª

0.600 (0.026)

0.430 (0.020)

0.880 (0.020)ª

CA

0.170 (0.014)

0.540 (0.022)

0.660 (0.018)

0.780 (0.028)ª

0.730 (0.017)ª

0.650 (0.013)

NB

0

0

0

0.110 (0.000)

0

0

CM

0.120 (0.016)

0.380 (0.012)ª

0.390 (0.021)ª

0.260 (0.022)

0.220 (0.021)

0.330 (0.018)

PM

0

0.080 (0.012)

0.130 (0.014)

0.080 (0.013)

0.100 (0.017)

0.090 (0.019)

PI

0

0.100 (0.023)

0.160 (0.017)

0.140 (0.022)

0.150 (0.021)

0.140 (0.017)

CB

0.030 (0.010)

0.270 (0.011)

0.260 (0.021)

0.550 (0.029)ª

0.410 (0.015)ª

0.320 (0.016)ª

MU

0.050 (0.013)

0.060 (0.019)

0.120 (0.022)

0.180 (0.033)

0.210 (0.031)

0.140 (0.025)

CNA

0.650 (0.019)

3.660 (0.012)ª

3.110 (0.012)ª

2.970 (0.019)ª

2.570 (0.013)

2.870 (0.011)ab

MNB

MN

0.440 (0.023)

1.730 (0.011)ª

1.260 (0.019)

0.760 (0.023)

1.660 (0.030)ª

1.470 (0.017)ª

CBr

0.010 (0.008)

0.330 (0.009)ª

0.270 (0.023)ª

0.200 (0.026)

0.160 (0.031)

0.170 (0.022)

MNB

0.450 (0.025)

2.060 (0.018)ª

1.530 (0.028)

0.960 (0.027)

1.820 (0.037)ª

1.640 (0.029)ª

AP
NE

AP

0

0

0

0

0

0b

NE

0

0.040 (0.023)b

0.020 (0.011)b

0.010 (0.015)b

0.030 (0.026)b

0.800 (0.029)ab

APNE

0

0.040 (0.013)b

0.020 (0.005)b

0.010 (0.005)b

0.030 (0.009)b

0.800 (0.024)ab

TOTAL

1.100 (0.025)

5.760 (0.017)ª

4.660 (0.014)

3.940 (0.011)

4.420 (0.013)

5.310 (0.017)

72 h treatment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CNA

GML

0.040 (0.015)

0.740 (0.016)

0.220 (0.020)b

0.310 (0.023)

0.330 (0.018)

0.390 (0.026)

CL

0.110 (0.016)

0.420 (0.033)

0.400 (0.019)

0.570 (0.027)

0.400 (0.023)

0.520 (0.036)b

CA

0.100 (0.014)

0.150 (0.023)b

0.380 (0.025)

1.030 (0.029)ª

0.360 (0.016)

0.400 (0.030)

CM

0.050 (0.027)

0.130 (0.019)

0.160 (0.022)

0.190 (0.024)

0.090 (0.015)

0.280 (0.025)

PM

0

0.220 (0.034)

0.010 (0.029)

0.020 (0.012)

0.090 (0.019)

0.050 (0.021)

PI

0.010 (0.012)

0.240 (0.025)

0.040 (0.022)

0.080 (0.028)

0.110 (0.034)

0.120 (0.022)

CB

0.010 (0.024)

0.190 (0.025)

0.110 (0.036)

0.180 (0.023)

0.200 (0.055)

0.080 (0.013)

MU

0.010 (0.027)

0.050 (0.051)

0.090 (0.042)

0.040 (0.016)

0.090 (0.035)

0.070 (0.032)

CNA

0.330 (0.020)

2.140 (0.021)ª

1.410 (0.021)b

2.420 (0.020)ª

1.670 (0.017)ª

1.910 (0.019)ab

MNB

MN

0.440 (0.027)

1.350 (0.036)b

0.730 (0.027)b

0.520 (0.031)b

0.860 (0.023)b

0.550 (0.029)b

CBr

0.010 (0.003)

0.160 (0.021)b

0.080 (0.013)b

0.060 (0.014)b

0.120 (0.004)b

0.040 (0.007)b

MNB

0.450 (0.027)

1.510 (0.036)b

0.810 (0.027)b

0.580 (0.031)b

0.980 (0.024)b

0.590 (0.030)b

AP
NE

AP

0

0

0.110 (0.014)b

0.040 (0.026)

0

0.010 (0.019)b

NE

0.070 (0.023)

0.120 (0.021)b

0.100 (0.023)

0.200 (0.018)b

0.610 (0.022)ab

0.640 (0.026)ab

APNE

0.070 (0.023)

0.120 (0.021)b

0.210 (0.013)b

0.240 (0.019)b

0.610 (0.022)ab

0.650 (0.029)ab

TOTAL

0.850 (0.021)

3.770 (0.037)ab

2.430 (0.018)b

3.240 (0.023)b

3.260 (0.029)b

3.150 (0.040)b

Note. NC. Negative Control; PC. Positive Control; CNA. Chromosome and nuclear aberrations; GML. Genetic material losses; CL. Chromosome losses; CA. Chromosome adherences; CM. C-metaphases; PM. Polyploidized metaphases; PI. Polyploidized interphases; CB. Chromosome bridges; MU. Multipolarities; MNB. Micronuclei and chromosome breaks; MN. Micronuclei; CBr. Chromosome breaks; APNE. Apoptotic and necrotic cells; AP. Apoptotic cells; NE. Necrotic cells; Total. Total of CNA, MNB and APNE. / 10,000 cells analyzed by concentration and by control. Average (Standard Deviation) / ªSignificantly different from the NC (p < 0,05) and  b Significantly different from the 20h treatment (p < 0,05), according to the Kruskal-Wallis test.

Table 2: Frequency (%) of alterations (CNA, MN/B e AP/NE) observed in A. cepa meristematic cells exposed to the different concentrations of the Black Dye Commercial Product, and to the Negative and Positive Control Tests, for the 20, 48 and 72h treatments.