Group 1
(n=30)
Group 2
(n=30)
Group 3
(n=30)
P-value
Age (yr, [range]) 31 (7) [21-50] 30 (5) [20-40] 30 (5) [20-42]  
Weight (kg) 79.5 (12.6) 78.1 (12.7) 79.0 (13.8)  
Height (cm) 157.7 (4.5) 157.6 (4.7) 156.9 (4.8)  
Parity (n) 1 (1) 1 (1) 1 (1)  
ASA class (I/II) 24/6 22/8 21/9  
Surgery time (min) 52 (3) 53 (4) 53 (3)  
Fasting duration (h) 9.9 (1.5) 9.9 (1.2) 9.9 (1.5)  
Intraoperative fluid (ml) 628 (307) 590 (297) 575 (283)  
Intraoperative blood loss (ml) 593 (105) 591 (101) 587 (100)  
Intraoperative urine output (ml) 100 (20) 113 (40) 104 (21)  
Apgar scores at 1 min 8 (1) 8 (1) 8 (1)  
Apgar scores at 5 min 10 (1) 10 (1) 10 (1)  
Sensory level (n)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6

2 (6.7%)
15 (50%)
9 (30%) 
3 (10%)
1 (3.3%)
0

0
0
1 (3.3%)
17 (56.7%)
12 (40%)
0

0
0
0
2 (6.7%)
14 (46.7%)
14(46.7%)
<0.001
Epidural supplementation (n) 0 0 8 (26.7%) <0.001
Time to Bromage score 2 (min) 112 (17) 110 (16) 105 (28) 0.437
Table 1: Baseline characteristics and patient outcomes ASA: American Society of Anesthesiologists. Data shown as mean (SD) or absolute numbers.