Personal Level Program Level
Insight Motivation Treatment Outcome Insight Motivation Treatment Outcome
Before versus during treatment This population has lower motivation Higher levels lead to better treatment outcome Treatment improves insight Operationalized as during-treatment participation/engagement (motivation as action) Treatment that focuses on increasing motivation/insight leads to less recidivism/relapse
This population has lower insight Internal versus external Higher levels of motivation/insight lead to seeking aftercare Insight as goal of treatment Pathway process of treatment affecting individual’s behaviour Motivation is more important to outcome than problem severity
Operationalized as criminal thinking levels/awareness of severity of problem/awareness of role in current circumstances Operationalized as readiness to change Higher levels of motivation/insight lead to less recidivism Adaptation of insight into identity (leads to behaviour change) Increasing client participation increases personal motivation Treatment that increases insight allows participants to make better after-treatment decisions
Longer duration of use leads to increased awareness of problem Affects behaviour during treatment   Lack of insight leads to increased resistance to treatment/progress Increasing client motivation increases willpower to reduce relapse rate  
Increased insight leads to behaviour change Longer duration of use leads to higher motivation   Treatment uses motivation as a tool to increase participation and commitment to treatment Treatment acts as external motivation that increases internal motivation  
Higher problem severity leads to increased insight Motivation leads to choices     Treatment uses motivation as a pathway to engagement and rapport  
Insight as a latent variable Alone, not effective        
Table 2: Codes and Themes Found in the Dataset