Figure 1: Neutrophils in Lupus. Model suggesting that a subset of neutrophils (Nregs) possess regulatory abilities involved in the control of humoral immunity. Under non-inflammatory conditions, such Nregs are located to the secondary lymphoid organs where they regulate T and B cell responses to foreign antigen. During chronic inflammation (Lupus), neutrophils display pro-inflammatory abilities including the production of IFN╬▒ and secretion of NETs by LDGs, and the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species involved in tissue damage by mature neutrophils. Signals driving the generation of pro-inflammatory neutrophils may include estrogen, IC and cytokines, all of which are associated with the development of lupus in genetically predisposed females.