FT Complications Urinary continence Erectile function Rectal toxicity Quality of life
Beerlage et al. [32] HIFU NR NR NR Rectourethral fistula 0/14 (0%) Perineal pain 14/14 (100%) NR
Bahn et al. [33] Cryo NR 28/28 (100%) 24/27 (88.8%) NR NR
Onik et al. [34] Cryo NR 24/25 (96%) 44/51 (85%) NR NR
Ellis et al. [35] Cryo NR 54/55 (96.4%) 24/34 (70.6%) Rectourethral fistula 0/34 (0%)  
Muto et al. [36] HIFU Urethral stricture 1/25 (4%) NR NR NR NR
Robinson et al. [37] Cryo NR NR 27/122 (22%) NR Temporary deterioration of urinary function and bowel function. Permanent deterioration of sexual function.
Truesdale et al. [38] Cryo NR 77/77 (100%) NR NR NR
Li et al. [39] HIFU and cryo NR NR Cryo: 22/47 (46.8%) HIFU: 36/55 (65.5%) NR NR
El Fegoun et al. [40] HIFU Urinary retention 1/12 (8%) Urinary tract infection 2/12 (16%) 12/12 (100%) NR NR NR
Donnelly et al. [41] Cryo Genitourinary: - Urgency/frequency 76/117 (64%) - Retention 26/117 (22%) - Pain 3/117 (2.6%) Diarrhea 8/117 (6.8%) Fecal incontinence 9/117 (7.7%) Proctitis 2/117 (1.7%) Gastrointestinal pain 17/117 (14.5%) Gastrointestinal bleeding 9/117 (7.7%) 79/117 (67.5%) 14/48 (29.1%) NR NR
Ahmed et al. [42] HIFU Urinary stricture 1/20 (5%) 18/20 (90%) 19/20 (95%) - No. significant difference
Ward et al. [43] Cryo Urinary retention 6/518 (1.1%) 499/507 (98.4%) 169/291 (58.1%) Rectourethral fistula 1/507 (0.1%) NR
Bahn et al. [44] Cryo NR 100% 36/42 (86%) Rectourethral fistula 0/73 (0%) NR
Ahmed et al. [45] HIFU Urinary retention 1/41 (2.4%) 100% 31/35 (86%) Suspicion of rectourethral fistula 1/41 (2.4%) Significant deterioration
Barret et al. [46] HIFU and cryo Urinary retention 9/106 (8.5%) Pelvic pain 1/106 Gross hematuria 1/106 (1%) Urethral stricture 1/106 (1%) 100% NR Rectourethral fistula with perineal abscess 1/106 (1%) NR
Napoli et al. [47] HIFU NR 3/5 (60%) NR NR NR
Crouzet et al. [48] HIFU Urinary tract infection 39/1002 (3.9%) Urinary retention 76/1002 (7.6%) Bladder outlet obstruction 166/1002 (16.6%) Hematuria 55/1002 (5.5%) Stenosis 90/1002 (95) 765/1002 (76%) 79/187 (42.3%) Rectourethral fistula 4/1002 (0.4%) NR
Durand et al. [49] Cryo Urinary retention 7/48 (15%) Cavernous corpus necrosis 1/48 (2%) Urethral stenosis 1/48 (2%) 100% No sign. difference of IIEF Perineal fistula 1/48 (2%) NR
Mendez [50] Cryo Urinary retention 7.3% 613/620 99% 193/332 (57.8%) Rectourethral fistula 2/634 (0.3%)  
Barqawi et al. [51] Cryo No severe complications 100% 100% Rectourethral fistula 0/62 (0%) 1.5 point decrease of American Urological Association Symptom score
Ahmed et al. [52] HIFU Dysuria  9/56 (16.1%) Hematuria 36/56 (64.3%) Urinary debris 2/56 (42.9%) Urinary tract infection 10/56 (17.9%) Urethral stricture 2/56 (3.6%) 46/50 (92.0%) 30/39 (76.9%) NR Very little impact of health-related quality of life
Table 6: Complications and functional outcomes of HIFU and cryotherapy trials.