Screening production animals for adventitious agents
IgG concentrations [(NH4)2SO4/NaSO4 precipitation]
Enzyme digestion (pepsin → F(ab’)2; papain → Fab
Caprylic acid stabilization
Ion exchange (removes Fc)
Affinity purification (concentrates venom-specific IgG)
Pasteurisation (10 h at 60°C)
Endotoxin exclusion (to not more than 0.5 u/kg/dose)
Lyophilisation
Table 1: Steps in antivenom production [24].