System Clinical Features Mechanism
Respiratory Hypoxia Methemoglobinemia (in susceptible individuals)
Renal Dark urine, acute kidney injury Hemoglobinuria, hemolysis
Hematological Jaundice, anemia Hemolysis (especially in G6PD deficient individuals)
CNS Confusion, seizures Leukoencephalopathy (rare)
Skin Dermatitis Hypersensitivity
Table 2: Spectrum of naphthalene toxicity.