Author

na

Sample Source

Metabolite

DFb

Central Tendency

Adgate (2001) [16]

102

Minnesota  Child

TCPy

93%

GMc=6.4 µg/Ld; AMe= 9.2 µg/L

Aprea (1999) [55]

42

General Population Italy

TCPy

88%

CAMf=3.5 µg/gg

Arcury (2007) [56]

60

Latino Age 1-6

TCPy

83.3%

GM=1.92µg/L; CAGMh=2.38 µg/g

 

 

PNP

90%

GM=1.0 µg/L; CAGM= 1.25 µg/g

 

 

3-PBA

40%

NAi

Barr (2005) [53]

1994

All

TCPy

91% (weighted)

GM=1.77µg/L; CAGM=1.58 µg/g

Barr (2010) [19]

3048 (3046 for CA)

NHANES 1999-2002

3-PBA

75.4% (weighted)

GM=0.318µg/L; CAGM=0.324 µg/g

Berger-Preiss (2002) [57]

145

Adults and Children

3-PBA

28%

Mean=0.25 µg/L

Berkowitz (2004) [37]

404

Pregnant Females

TCPy

NA

Median=7.6µg/L; CA Median= 11.5 µg/g

Eskenazi (2004) [45]

488

Pregnant Females

TCPy

76.3%

Median=3.3 µg/L

 

in Agricultural Community

PNP

54.4%

Median= 0.5 µg/L

Hill (1995) [55]

993

USA NHANES III

TCPy

82%

Mean=4.5 µg/L; CAM=3.1 µg/g

980

 

PNP

41%

Mean=1.6 µg/L, CAM=1.2 µg/g

Macintosh (2001) [44]

80

NHEXAS- Maryland

TCPy

96%

GM=5.1 µg/L; CAGM= 4.5 µg/g

Morgan 2005 [58]

128

Children

TCP

NA

GM=5.2 ng/ml; Mean=7.3 ng/ml

110 (Creatinine)

 

 

 

CAGM 8 ng/mg; CAM= 10.5 ng/mg

Naeher (2010) [59]

203

Children      Age 4-6

3-PBA

99.5%

Mean=5.0 µg/L

Olsson (2003) [60]

140

NA

TCPy

56%

GM= 9.7 µg/L

 

 

 

PNP

99%

GM= 2.1 µg/L

Panuwet (2008) [61]

136

Thailand General Population

PNP

99.3%

GM= 2.8 µg/L; CAGM=2.1 µg/g

104

 

TCPy

76.5%

GM=1.7 µg/L; CAGM=1.3 µg/g

118

 

3-PBA

86.8%

GM=1.1 µg/L; CAGM=0.86 µg/g

Panuwet (2009) [62]

207

Thailand Age 12-13

PNP

98%

GM=2.68  ng/ML; CAGM=3.07 µg/g

 

 

 

 

AM=4.07 ng/ml; CAAMj=3.81 µg/g

 

 

TCPy

92%

GM=2.35 ng/ml; CAGM=2.7 mg/g

 

 

 

 

AM=4.02 ng/ml; CAAM=3.74 mg/g

 

 

3-PBA

47%

GM=0.2 ng/ml; CAGM=0.23 µg/g

 

 

 

 

AM=1.0 ng/ml; CAAM=0.95 µg/g

Steenland (2000) [63]

65

Termiticide Applicator (Recent App)

TCPy

NA

Mean=629.5 µg/L; CAM= 331 µg/g

40

Termiticide Applicator

TCPy

NA

Mean= 119.0 µg/L; CAM= 55 µg/g

52

Non-Exposed Control

TCPy

 

Mean=6.2 µg/L; CAM=3µg/g

Ueyama (2009) [64]

448

Japanese General Population

3-PBA

 

GM=0.29 µg/L; CAGM=0.4 µg/g

 

 

 

 

AM=0.63 µg/L; CAAM= 0.73 µg/g

87

Japanese Farmers

 

 

GM=0.38 µg/L; CAGM=0.45 µg/g

 

 

 

 

AM=0.76 µg/L; CAAM=0.81 µg/g

Ye (2008) [65]

9778

Mothers

TCPy

100%

GM=1.2 µg/L; CAGM=1.9 µg/g

a(n) = Number in Sample; b(DF) = Detection Frequency; c(GM) = Geometric Mean; d(μg/L) = Micrograms per Liter; e(AM) = Arithmetic Mean; f(CAM) = Creatinine-Adjusted Mean; g(μg/g) = Micrograms per Gram; h(CAGM) = Creatinine-Adjusted GM; i(NA) = Not Available; j(CAAM) = Creatinine-Adjusted AM
Table 10: Summary of Results from Other Biomarker Studies.