Placebo Alcohol Two-way ANOVA P value
Parameters 0% GTP (P) 0.1% GTP (PLG) 0.5% GTP (PHG) 0% GTP (A) 0.1% GTP (ALG) 0.5% GTP (AHG) Alcohol GTP Alcohol GTP
Femur                  
Bone area (cm2) 1.560 ± 0.043x 1.519 ± 0.043x 1.548 ± 0.047x 1.282 ± 0.052y 1.360 ± 0.043y 1.351 ± 0.043y <0.001 0.825 0.431
BMC (g) 0.269 ± 0.009x 0.280 ± 0.009x 0.290 ± 0.010x 0.200 ± 0.011y 0.214 ± 0.009y 0.226 ± 0.009y <0.001 0.091  0.978
BMD (g/cm2) 0.172 ± 0.006xc 0.184 ± 0.006xb 0.196 ± 0.006xa 0.155 ± 0.007yc 0.158 ± 0.005yb 0.167 ± 0.005ya   <0.001 0.030 0.608
LV-4                  
Bone area (cm2) 0.365 ± 0.011x 0.397 ± 0.011x 0.397 ± 0.011x 0.302 ± 0.010y  0.308 ± 0.011y 0.314 ± 0.010y <0.001 0.111 0.510
BMC (g) 0.068 ± 0.002xc 0.071 ± 0.002xb 0.075 ± 0.002xa 0.045 ± 0.002yc 0.051 ± 0.012yb 0.054 ± 0.002ya   <0.001 0.016 0.805
BMD (g/cm2) 0.184 ± 0.004x 0.178 ± 0.004x 0.187 ± 0.004x 0.152 ± 0.004y  0.166 ± 0.004y 0.170 ± 0.004y <0.001 0.068 0.072
Serum                  
OC (ng/mL) 588.3 ± 47.6 582.5 ± 47.5 605.5 ± 44.5 568.2 ± 47.5 656.3 ± 47.5 522.9 ± 47.5 0.804 0.483 0.258
TRAP-5b (U/L) 10.1 ± 1.4C   14.9 ± 1.3AB 17.4 ± 1.1A 12.5 ± 1.5AB 8.7 ± 1.4C 10.8 ± 1.2C 0.003 0.092 0.004
OC/TRAP-5b 44.5 ± 5.5ya  32.0 ± 5.5yb 30.1 ± 5.2yc 57.6 ± 5.5xa 53.9 ± 5.5yb 40.3 ± 5.5xc 0.002 0.023 0.547
Alcohol negatively affected bone mass and turnover biomarkers
Table 2: Bone mass and bone turnover biomarkers in placebo- and alcohol-treated rats supplemented with green tea polyphenols (GTP) in drinking water are shown. Results are expressed as mean values ± standard error of mean (SEM). All dietary treatment groups were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Fisher’s protected least significant difference (Fisher’s LSD) post-hoc test to evaluate the effect of alcohol, GTP dose, or interaction. Within a row with different superscripts (x and y for alcohol effect; a and b for GTP; A, B and C for interaction) are significantly different by two-way ANOVA and Fisher’s LSD test (P<0.05). Within the Placebo groups (Placebo control, Placebo+0.1% GTP, and Placebo +0.5% GTP) or Alcohol groups (Alcohol control, Alcohol +0.1% GTP, Alcohol +0.5% GTP), data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Fisher’s LSD test to determine the effect of GTP levels (P<0.05). Abbreviations are: BMC, bone mineral content; BMD, bone mineral density; OC, osteocalcin; TRAP-5b, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b.