Sources of oxidative stress
Sources of vascular oxidative stress Acute and chronic hyperglycaemia; Lipoprotein abnormalities; Hypertension; OS; Inflammation and AGEs accumulation;
Glycation; Glycoxidation; Lipoxidation; Extracellular metal ions; Superoxide and HOCl; NADPH/NADH oxidase; NO
synthase; Cyclooxygenase; Lipoxygenase; Myeloperoxidase; P450 monooxygenases; Enzymes of mitochondrial oxidative
phosphorylation;
Increased generation of ROS Autoxidation of carbohydrates, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesteryl esters; Acute and chronic
hyperglycemia; Glycation, advanced glycation and glycoxidation;
Alterations in enzymatic pathways Increased polyol pathway activity; Decreased glyoxalase pathway activity; Alteration in mitochondrial oxidative
metabolism; Altered prostaglandin and leukotriene metabolism;
Other mechanisms Ischemia-reperfusion injury, hypoxia and pseudohypoxia;
Table 1: Possible conditions that may be sources of oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus (modified from ref. [46]).