Type 2 diabetic patients Control p value
Number 23 13  
Age 58 ± 2.7 52 ± 2 0.975
Gender (males/females) 18/5 5/8 0.169
BMI (kg/m2) 21 ± 0.3 21 ± 0.5 1.000
HbA1c (%) (NGDP) 9.1 ± 0.30 5.4 ± 0.01 <0.001
Plasma glucose (mg/dL) 151 ± 9 92 ± 2 <0.001
Serum immunoreactive insulin (μU/mL) 5.2 ± 0.6 3.7 ± 0.6 0.163
HOMA-R 1.9 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1 0.001
HOMA-β (%) 25.1 ± 3.4 80.1 ± 5.1 0.001
Serum immunoreactive C-peptide (ng/mL) 1.7 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.1 0.073
Plasma immunoreactive active GLP-1 like substance (pmol/L) 4.0 ± 0.5 2.6 ± 0.5 0.063
Duration of diabetes from discovery (year) 9.2 ± 1.5    
Retinopathy (NDR/SDR//PPDR/PDR) 19/1/0/3    
Peripheral neuropathy 8    
Nephropathy (Normo/Micro/Macro) 17/5/1    
Macroangiopathy (asymptomatic) 3    
Diabetic treatment (α-GI/BG/TZD/SU) 1/15/12/12    
Dyslipidemia treatment 2    
Hypertension treatment 5    
Table 1: Clinical characteristics of complications- and treatment-non-naïve nonobese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-obese Japanese controls with normal glucose tolerance.