First pregnancy with diabetes

Second or greater pregnancy with diabetes

Odds Ratio
(95% CI)

P

Hemoglobin A1C
(mean ± standard deviation)

7.7 ± 1.9

7.4 ± 1.6

 

NS

Hemoglobin A1C ≥ 7

57.1%

51.7%

0.80 (0.31-2.1)

NS

Hemoglobin A1C ≥ 9

23.8%

17.2%

0.67 (0.20-2.2)

NS

Preconceptual counseling

14.3%

3.4%

0.21 (0.02-1.9)

NS

Preconceptual folic acid

31.0%

31.0%

1.0 (0.4-2.8)

NS

No insulin prior to pregnancy b

48%

18%

0.24 (0.4-1.3)

NS

Insulin prior to pregnancy

71%

72%

1.1 (0.25-4.7)

NS

Cesarean delivery

62.2%

62.5%

1.0 (0.4-2.9)

NS

Birth weight, g
(mean ± standard deviation)

3512 ± 750

3422 ± 616

 

NS

 

bThere was a non-significant trend towards better glycemic control (smaller proportion of patients with poor control) in the no insulin patients with previously affected pregnancies compared to the no insulin patients in their first affected pregnancy (p=0.1)
Table 2: Primary and secondary outcome measures of first versus second or greater pregnancy with diabetes.