Proinflammatory Type 1 cytokines Type 2 cytokines Type 3
  cytokines     cytokine
  IL-1 TNF-α IFN-α IL-12 IFN-γ TNF-β IL-2 IL-4 IL-6 IL-10 TGF-β
NOD mice ++ ++ 0 ++ ++ ++ ++ + ++ + +
BB rats ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ? ++ 0 ? + +
Humans 0 nd ++ ? ++ ? nd 0 0 ? ?
++: cytokine presence correlates with β-cell destructive insulitis; +: cytokine presence correlates with benign insulitis; 0: cytokine presence does not correlate with either destructive or benign insulitis; nd: not detected;
?: not reported; NOD: Non-Obese Diabetic mice; BB: Biobreeding rats; Humans: pancreas of humans with IDDM
Table 6: Correlations of cytokines expressed in islets with β-cell destructive or benign insulitis (according to Rabinovitch [83]; with own modification).