Cell type Cell line IC50 (mg/ml)a          
    Heparin CSC CSA Dextran sulfated Dextran Fucoidine
Endothelial HUV-EC-Cb 1.8 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.4 2.9 ± 1.5 1.0 ± 0.4 9.7 ± 3.4 4.1 ± 1.8
Epithelial HEp-2b 5.5 ± 1.6 4.5 ± 0.4 6.3 ± 2.3 5.7 ± 2.3 14.1 ± 2.1 19.5 ± 0.2
Fibroblast HFF 4.8 ± 2.0 4.1 ± 1.4 7.3 ± 1.7 2.2 ± 0.4 > 20 > 20
Glial or astrocyte U373b 3.0 ± 1.9 3.0 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 0.4 2.1 ± 0.4 7.4 ± 3.8 16.0 ± 3.7
Macrophage U937b 2.0 ± 0.3 1.8 ± 0.8 2.6 ± 1.5 6.7 ± 2.6 7.0 ± 2.7 13.2 ± 4.9
Melanocyte G361b 4.0 ± 0.3 2.0 ± 0.1 3.0 ± 1.9 4.6 ± 0.4 8.8 ± 4.7 0.3 ± 0.1
Averagec   3.5 ± 1.4 2.8 ± 1.1 3.9 ± 2.2 3.7 ± 2.1 11.2 ± 4.6 11.7 ± 6.2
aMean ± SE, n = 2 or 3; bObtained from the American Type Culture collection; cAverage values (± SE) for all cell types tested. dA sulfated L-fucose oligosaccharide. eThe synthetic polyanion. IC50: Inhibitory Concentration; CSC: Chondroitin sulfate C; CSA: Chondroitin Sulfate A; Several heparin binding proteins were identified in lysates of T. gondii based on their ability to agglutinate red blood cells in a heparin-sensitive manner [460].
Table 42: Inhibition by soluble glycosaminoglycans of T. gondii attachment to various mammalian cells (acc. Carruthers et al. [459]; with own modification).