Ordinary bottled Water Zamzam Water
Parameter Baseline Final p-value Baseline Final p-value
Urea (mg/dl) 28.7 ± 1.6 28.2 ± 1.8 0.700 23.5 ± 1.3 25.2 ± 1.3 0.064
Creatinine  (mg/dl) 0.65 ± 0.03 0.65 ± 0.03 0.694 0.65 ± 0.03 0.67 ± 0.03 0.021
Uric acid (mg/dl) 4.4 ± 0.2 4.6 ± 0.2 0.166 4.7 ± 0.3 5.1 ± 0.3 0.004
Calcium  (mg/dl) 9.0 ± 0.07 9.2 ± 0.07 0.051 9.2 ± 0.06 9.0 ± 0.09 0.046
Values represent mean ± SEM
Table 5: Baseline and final serum urea, creatinine and uric acid in diabetic patients receiving ordinary bottled water (control) or Zamzam water (test) for two months.