Controls (n=26) Non-GDM mothers (n=27) GDM mothers (n=27) Healhy neonates (n=27) IDM (n=27)
TC 53.3 ± 9.0 24.5 ± 4.4* 27.5 ± 7.8* 40.8 ± 8.9 55.0 ± 13.0
FC 42.3 ± 7.9 15.6 ± 3.3* 18.8 ± 6.6* 24.8 ± 6.2 33.3 ± 8.1
tAC 11.0 ± 2.2 8.8 ± 1.9* 10.7 ± 4.6 16.2 ± 4.4 21.7 ± 5.9
SCAC 8.6 ± 1.4 7.0 ± 1.8* 8.9 ± 4.2 12.6 ± 3.8 17.7 ± 5.1
MCAC 0.60 ± 0.23 0.34 ± 0.06* 0.36 ± 0.09* 0.37 ± 0.15 0.36 ± 0.11
LCAC 1.8 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.3* 1.5 ± 0.5 3.0 ± 0.8 3.8 ± 1.2
Values are expressed as means and standard deviations; parametric ANOVA with Dunnett T3 test for multiple comparisons; significant differences: *mothers vs. controls; IDM vs. controls; healthy neonates vs. IDM; The differences of all carnitine fractions (except for the MCAC) between the each maternal group and the respective neonatal group as well as between controls and healthy neonates were significant at p<0.001; no difference between the two maternal groups was significant; NS: Not Significant; IDM: Infants of Diabetic Mothers; TC: Total Carnitine; FC: Free Carnitine; tAC: Total Acyl-Carnitine; SCAC: Short-Chain AC; MCAC: Medium-Chain AC; LCAC: Long-Chain AC
Table 3: Whole blood levels (μmol/L) of free carnitine, total acyl-carnitine, and acyl-carnitine fractions.