Diabetic
  Treatment cohort p-values
EBGS (N=479) LIPUS (N=183) No-stim (N=742) EBGS vs. No-stim LIPUS vs. No- stim EBGS vs. LIPUS
Mean  (SE) Median Mean  (SE) Median Mean  (SE) Median
Costs in 9 months before index date ($) 26,872 (1,867) 13,684 26,638 (4,759) 14,283 33,198 (2,480) 14,286      
Total healthcare costs 0.57 0.77 0.86
Cost of inpatient admissions 9,852 (1,368) 0 9,620 (2,123) 0 13,999 (1,529) 0 0.02 0.30 0.52
Cost of outpatient services 13,493 (867) 7,820 14,182 (2,873) 8,321 16,009 (1,574) 7,535 0.39 0.39 0.81
Cost of medications 3,528 (244) 1,770 2,836 (305) 1,372 3,191 (158) 1,736 0.30 0.44 0.14
Fracture-related healthcare costs 8,625 (1,277) 1,133 6,827 (1,258) 1,170 12,153 (1,418) 1,238 1.00 0.73 0.78
Cost of inpatient admissions 6,312 (1,223) 0 4,757 (1,234) 0 9,426 (1,368) 0 0.02 0.08 0.90
Cost of outpatient services 2,313 (171) 1,000 2,070 (236) 990 2,726 (204) 884 0.11 0.59 0.54
Costs in 12 months after index date ($) 31,277 (1,915) 18,273 36,270 (3,628) 20,241 50,256 (3,276) 23,712      
Total healthcare costs <0.01 0.18 0.14
Cost of inpatient admissions 6,460 (792) 0 12,533 (2,447) 0 22,189 (1,932) 0 <0.01 <0.01 0.01
Cost of outpatient services 19,984 (1,400) 11,947 19,688 (1,634) 12,851 23,644 (2,040) 13,116 0.74 0.28 0.21
Cost of medications 4,834 (338) 2,987 4,049 (397) 2,358 4,423 (214) 2,606 0.26 0.48 0.14
Fracture-related healthcare costs 8,104 (535) 4,068 12,531 (1,492) 4,239 17,689 (1,409) 6,103 0.49 0.12 0.01
Cost of inpatient admissions 2,529 (460) 0 6,117 (1,355) 0 12,934 (1,352) 0 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Cost of outpatient services 5,575 (255) 3,897 6,415 (449) 4,092 4,755 (317) 1,990 <0.01 <0.01 0.03
  Non-diabetic
  Treatment cohort p-values
EBGS (N=2951) LIPUS (N=1251) No-stim (N=6022) EBGS vs. No-stim LIPUS vs. No- stim EBGS vs. LIPUS
Mean  (SE) Median Mean  (SE) Median Mean  (SE) Median
Costs in 9 months before index date ($) 15,106 (770) 7,157 18,388 (976) 7,797 14,286 (427) 4,920      
Total healthcare costs <0.01 <0.01 0.09
Cost of inpatient admissions 5,434 (709) 0 7,955 (807) 0 5,914 (341) 0 0.43 <0.01 <0.01
Cost of outpatient services 8,441 (195) 5,045 9,147 (374) 5,308 7,192 (165) 3,664 <0.01 <0.01 0.52
Cost of medications 1,231 (51) 198 1,286 (179) 180 1,180 (46) 110 <0.01 0.23 0.13
Fracture-related healthcare costs 7,192 (713) 1,228 9,030 (824) 1,079 6,510 (313) 870 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Cost of inpatient admissions 4,469 (699) 0 6,478 (773) 0 4,425 (297) 0 0.27 <0.01 0.01
Cost of outpatient services 2,723 (86) 1,093 2,552 (167) 913 2,085 (53) 790 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Costs in 12 months after index date ($) 19,033 (621) 10,453 21,370 (912) 11,434 21,119 (456) 11,400      
Total healthcare costs 0.95 <0.01 <0.01
Cost of inpatient admissions 4,468 (485) 0 5,648 (640) 0 7,580 (356) 0 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Cost of outpatient services 12,785 (260) 8,436 13,838 (424) 9,223 11,911 (180) 8,151 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Cost of medications 1,781 (76) 274 1,884 (230) 284 1,628 (63) 193 0.04 0.85 0.24
Fracture-related healthcare costs 8,102 (248) 4,076 9,374 (356) 4,326 10,157 (274) 4,677 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Cost of inpatient admissions 2,089 (209) 0 2,737 (296) 0 5,029 (261) 0 <0.01 <0.01 0.01
Cost of outpatient services 6,013 (111) 4,032 6,638 (180) 4,152 5,129 (85) 3,051 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
*A non-parametric Wilcoxon test was used to compare the total and fracture-related costs between the various treatment cohorts as the distribution of costs associated with the different treatments was not normal
†All costs presented are in U.S. dollars and represent raw, unadjusted costs observed in the medical claims dataset
Table 3: Healthcare costs before and after the index date among diabetic and non-diabetic patients with fracture nonunion in the different treatment cohorts*, †.