Healthy control (n=16) NAFLD diet (n=8) NAFLD exercise
(n=13)
Pre Post Pre Post
Age (years) 40 ± 12 45 ±14 - 50 ± 9 -
Gender (M/F) 11/5 4/4 - 9/4 -
BMI (kg/m2 23 ± 3 35 ± 8 32 ± 7 * 33 ± 6 33 ± 5
Waist (cm)
Body fat (%)
82 ± 8
23± 6
111 ± 17
38 ± 8
104 ± 20 *
35  ± 11
114 ± 18
39 ±8
109 ± 16**
34 ± 7**
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 72 ± 7 80 ± 9 75 ±12 88 ± 9 84±10
Systolic BP (mmHg)… 115 ± 8 126 ± 13 117 ± 13 * 140 ± 19 138 ± 18
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 90 ± 7 95 ± 7 94 ± 13 99 ± 9 95 ± 7
Fasting insulin (μU/ml) 3 ± 2 19 ± 15 13 ± 7 24 ± 22 15 ± 10
Fasting triglycerides (mg/dl) 44 ± 18 142 ± 71 124 ± 78 177 ± 97 177 ± 115
Fasting HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 53 ± 12 37 ± 12 40 ± 11 35 ± 10 40 ± 10 **
ALT (U/L) 23 ± 12 70 ± 58 51 ± 47 61 ± 30 53 ± 34
Patients with the metabolic syndrome n (%) 0 (0) 5 (63) 5 (63) 8 (62) 8 (62)
TNFα (pg/ml)
hsCRP (mg/L)
Total adiponectin (μg/ml)
HMW adiponectin (μg/ml)
4.1(1.6-18.3)
0.6(0.1-3.7)
5.6 ± 3.1
2.7 ± 1.8
5.0(2.1-12.0)
2.7(0.5-9.7)
3.1 ± 1.3
1.1 ± 0.8
4.5(2.1-6.5)
1.7(0.5-9.0)
3.8 ±1.4*
1.7 ± 1.1*
5.1(3.8-17.3)
1.5(0.7-4.8)
3.6 ± 1.6
1.5 ± 1.0
5.7(3.5-17.3)
1.0(0.2-4.8)
3.4 ± 1.8
1.2 ±1.0
Glucose metabolism
Clamp plasma insulin (μU/ml)
Clamp plasma glucose (mg/dl)
Muscle
TGD (mg/kgFFM/min)
TGD/I (mg/kgFFM/min)/(mU/L) 
Oxidative GDR (mg/kgFFM/min)
Non-oxidative GDR (mg/kgFFM/min)

Liver
Fasting EGP (μmol/kg/min)
Hepatic-IR (μmol/kgFFM/min/pmol/L)
Suppression EGP (%)

Lipid metabolism
Fasting NEFA (mmol/L)
Adipose tissue-IR (mmol/pmol/L)
β-Hydroxybutyrate (mmol/L)
Fasting whole body fat oxidation (mg/kg/min)

49 ± 10
79.2 ± 7.2


9.1 ± 2.3
19.8 ± 7.8
3.7 ± 0.7
5.3 ± 2.7


12.2 ± 2.7
5.4 ± 3.4
94 ± 11 0.


61 ± 0.19
15.2 ± 8.3
0.14 ± 0.07
1.01 ± 0.34

76 ± 28
79.2 ± 7.2


4.3 ± 1.4
6.2 ± 2.7
3.2 ± 0.9
1.0 ± 1.0

10.1 ± 1.0
21.1 ± 16.1
91 ± 11


0.62 ± 0.16
84.3 ± 69.4
0.08 ± 0.02
0.73 ± 0.24

70 ± 22
84.6 ± 7.2


5.2±1.6
7.8 ± 2.6
3.3 ± 0.8
1.9 ± 1.4


10.9 ± 2.0
15.6 ± 8.2
95 ± 6 0.


64 ± 0.21
47.4 ± 24.1
0.10 ± 0.04*
0.85 ± 0.32

81 ± 26
84.6 ± 7.2


4.5±1.7
6.5 ± 4.3
3.6 ± 1.7
0.9 ± 2.3


10.9 ± 1.7
26.2 ± 21.5
86 ± 12


0.56 ± 0.18
94.3 ± 90.4
0.10 ± 0.03
0.77 ± 0.15

79 ± 18
81.9 ± 7.2


5.3 ± 1.6*
7.3 ± 4.0
2.9 ± 1.1
2.4 ± 1.3 *


10.9 ± 2.3
16.4 ± 11.8
98 ± 4*


0.60 ± 0.23
60.3 ± 42.9
0.11 ± 0.06
0.88 ± 0.26
Values are mean ± SD or median (range) for non-parametric variables. There was no difference between NAFLD groups in any variable at baseline. Intention-to-treat analysis performed for pre- and post-analysis.
P<0.01 for independent t-test (or Wilcoxon matched pairs test) comparisons with total NAFLD group at baseline
*p<0.05, **p<0.01 paired t-test for change within group
p<0.05 for treatment effect between diet and exercise groups assessed by RMANOVA (time × group) or independent t-test of delta at 6 months
Table 1: Characteristics of subjects at baseline (Pre) and after 6 months intervention (Post).