Study Patients Design and type of CGMS Type of Exercise Diet Effect on blood glucose
During exercise After exercise
Praet et al.
[21]
11 overweight  and obese (males);
insulin treated
24-h before and 24-h after exercise Day-time of ex: 11.00 CGMS:  microdialysis - RES ex (50% 1RM) plus high-intensity interval ex: whole-body warm-up;
two leg exercises, 2 set, 10 rep; and
four 30-s high- intensity interval exercises on a bicycle, alternated with 60-s recovery
Subjects asked to closely match their daily nutritional intake Blood glucose
↓RESex vs pre-ex
Mean 24-h glucose
No difference
Glucose variability (CONGA) No difference
Hyperglycemia (duration)
↓day after ex
Hypoglycemia (duration)
No difference
Manders et al.
[28]
9 overweight (males);
non-insulin treated
24-h after exercise Day-time of ex: 09.00 CGMS: microdialysis - Low-intensity ex: 60 min of cycling
(35% Wmax);
- High-Intensity ex: 60 min of cycling
(70% Wmax);
- Non-ex: seated for 60 min
Meals in pre-weighed packages - Mean 24-h glucose and AUC
↓low-intensity ex vs non-ex 
Hyperglycemia (duration, 24-h)
↓low-intensity ex vs non-ex
Hyperglycemia (after dinner)
↓low- and-high intensity ex vs non-ex
Van Dijk et al. [22] 30 overweight and obese (males); either insulin treated or non-insulin treated 24-h after exercise with Day-time of ex: 11.00 CGMS: microdialysis - AER ex: 45 min of cycling (50% Wmax);
- RES ex: 45 min, upper body ex,  3 set, 10 rep, 20-40% bodyweight; plus
lower body ex 5 set, 10 rep at 55-75% 1RM;
- Non-ex: seated for 45 min
Meals in pre-weighed packages Mean glucose No difference Hyperglycemia (duration)
No difference
Mean 24-h glucose
↓AER and RES ex vs non-ex
No difference AER ex vs RES ex
Hyperglycemia (duration, 24-h)
↓AER and RES ex vs non-ex
No difference AER ex vs RES ex
Hyperglycemia (time periods)
↓AER ex during afternoon and evening
↓RES ex during nocturnal period
↓AER and RES ex during following morning period
Hypoglycemia (duration, 24-h)
No difference
Hypoglycemia (time periods)
↑AER ex during evening
Van Dijk et al. [23] 30 overweight  and obese (males);
either insulin treated or non-insulin-treated
48-h after exercise with Day-time of ex: 10.00
(after breakfast) CGMS: microdialysis
- AER ex “60”: 60 min of cycling (50% Wmax) the first day;
- AER ex “30+30”: 30 min of cycling (50% Wmax) each day;
- Non-ex: habitual sedentary condition
Meals in pre-weighed packages Mean glucose
- First day:
↓both AER ex vs non-ex;
↓AERex “60” vs AERex ”30+30”.
- Second day:
↓both AER ex vs non-ex;
↓AERex “30+30” vs AERex “60”.
Mean 24-h glucose
↓both AER ex on the first and second day
Hyperglycemia (% of the time)
↓both AER ex on the first and second day
Van Dijk et al. [29] 60 overweight  and obese (males);
either insulin treated or non-insulin-treated
24-h after exercise with Day-time of ex: 10.00
(after breakfast) CGMS: microdialysis
- AER ex:
45-60 min of cycling (35-50% Wmax);
- Non-ex:  seated for 45-60 min
Meals in pre-weighed packages - Mean 24-h glucose
↓AER ex in both insulin and non-insulin treated;
Hyperglycemia (duration, 24-h)
↓AER ex
Hypoglycemia (duration, 24-h)
No difference
Glucose variability (CONGA)
↓AER ex
Van Dijk et al. [30] 20 overweight and obese (males);
non-insulin treated
72-h, exercise on the second day with Day-time of ex:
- 9.15 for AER-ex (after breakfast);
- 9.15, 12.15, and 16.45 for DLA (after the main meals) CGMS: microdialysis
- AER ex:
45-min of cycling
(~6 METs)
- DLA: three 15-min bouts of  postmeal strolling (~3 METs)
- Non-ex: habitual sedentary condition
Standardized
dietary conditions
- Mean 24-h glucose
↓AER ex
Hyperglycemia (duration, 24-h)
↓AER ex
Post-prandial glucose
↓AER ex, at each meal
↓AER and DLA, for the cumulative glucose response to meals
Bacchi et al.
[20]
25 overweight  and obese (both males and females);
non-insulin treated
48-h during and after exercise with Day-time of ex: 18.30 CGMS: glucose oxidase - AER ex  (n=13): 60min, 60-65% HRR;
- RES ex (n=12): 60 min,
9 ex, 3 series, 10 repetitions at 70-80% 1RM; 
-Non-ex: corresponding time periods in non-ex day
Subjects asked to closely match their daily nutritional intake Glucose AUC
↓AER ex vs RES ex and Non-ex
24-h glucose AUC
No difference
48-h glucose AUC
No difference
Nocturnal glucose AUC
↓AER ex vs Non-ex
Hyperglycemia (HBGI)
No difference
Hypoglycemia (LBGI)
↑AER ex during nocturnal period vs Non-ex day
Figueira et al. [24] 14 overweight  and obese (both males and females);
non-insulin treated
24-h before and 48-h after exercise with Day-time of ex:12.00 CGMS: glucose oxidase - AER ex: 40 min at 70% peak heart rate
- COMB ex: 20 min at 70% peak heart rate and 4 RES exercises, 3 sets of 12 rep at 65% 1RM
Subjects asked to closely match their daily nutritional intake Blood glucose
↓AER and COMB ex vs pre-ex
24-h glucose AUC
No difference
48-h glucose AUC
No difference
Hyperglycemia (episodes)
No difference between AER and COMB ex and vs pre-ex
Glucose variability (MAGE, variance, CV and SD)
↓COMB ex vs pre-ex
Mikus et al. [31] 13 overweight and obese (both males and females);
non-insulin treated
72-h before exercise, and 72-h in the last 3 days of seven consecutive days of training Day-time of ex: not specified CGMS:  glucose oxidase -AER ex: 60 min, (20 min treadmill walking, 20 min stationary cycling, 20 min treadmill walking) at 60-75% HRR
-Non-ex: habitual sedentary condition
Standardized dietary conditions. Additional snacks during training days matched for exercise energy cost - Mean 24-h glucose
No difference
Hyperglycemia (duration, 24-h)
↓AER ex
Post-prandial glucose
↓AER ex
Hypoglycemia (duration, 24-h)
↓AER ex
Glucose variability (glucose excursions)
↓AER ex
Gillen et al. [35] 7 overweight and obese (gender not specified);
non-insulin treated
24-h after exercise Day-time of ex: 08.00 (1.5 h after breakfast) CGMS:  glucose oxidase - High intensity interval ex: ten 60-s cycling efforts at 89% Wmax, alternated with 60-s recovery;
-Non-ex: corresponding time periods in non-ex day
Individualized diets - Mean 24-h glucose
No difference
Hyperglycemia (duration, 24-h)
↓HIT ex
Post-prandial glucose
↓HIT ex
Oberlin et al. [32] 9 obese (both males and females);
non-insulin treated
48-h after exercise Day-time of ex: 06.30 CGMS:  glucose oxidase -AER ex: 60 min, (20 min treadmill walking, 20 min stationary cycling, 20 min treadmill walking) at 60-75% HRR
-Non-ex: habitual sedentary condition
Standardized
dietary conditions
- Mean 24-h glucose
↓AER ex during the first day
Post-prandial glucose
↓AER ex for the cumulative glucose response to meals over the two days
AER: Aerobic Training; AUC: Area Under The Curve; COMB: Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Training; CONGA: Continuous Overall Net Glycemic Action; CV: Coefficient of Variation; DLA: Daily Living Activities; ex: Exercise; HBGI: High Blood Glucose Index; HIT: High-Intensity Interval Training; HRR: Heart Rate Reserve; LBGI: Low Blood Glucose Index; MAGE: Mean Amplitude of Glycemic Excursion; Rep: Repetitions; RES: Resistance Training; SD: Standard Deviation; W:Watt; Wmax: Maximal Watt; ↓:Significantly Reduced; ↑: Significantly Increased
Table 1: Summary of studies assessing the effect of a single bout of exercise on blood glucose in type 2 diabetes subjects by CGMS.