Percentage with problems (%)    
  Mobility Self-care Usual activities Pain/discomfort Anxiety/depression EQ-5D index EQ-5D VAS
Overall with problems 1049 (7.1) 333 (2.2) 643 (4.3) 3681 (24.8) 3012 (20.3)    
Gender              
     Male 5.4 1.8 3.3 19.4 16.0 0.920 ± 0.150 74 ± 15.1
Female 9.0a 2.7a 5.6a 31.2a 25.4a 0.870 ± 0.193a 72.6 ± 16.2a
Age              
   18 – 40 years 2.0 0.8 2.2 16.0 16.9 0.933 ± 0.135 74.0 ± 15.2
   40 – 65 years 3.9 1.2 2.6 23.6 20.9 0.905 ± 0.165 73.3 ± 15.4
> 65 years 15.4a 5.0a 8.8a 29.0a 19.5b 0.873 ± 0.194a 73.4 ± 16.2
Employment              
   Employed 1.8 0.3 0.9 19.5 17.3 0.928 ± 0.130 74.3 ± 14.7
   Unemployed 10.9a 3.6a 6.8a 28.6a 22.5a 0.875 ± 0.195a 72.6 ± 16.2a
Education              
< 6 years 10.8 3.5 6.6 28.4 22.2 0.876 ± 0.195 72.7 ± 16.6
6-11 years 4.7 1.4 2.9 23.2 19.4 0.909 ± 0.158 73.6 ± 15.1
>11 years 3.6a 1.0a 2.2a 20.2 17.9a 0.921 ± 0.144a 74.3 ± 14.1a
Diabetes duration              
  < 5 years 4.6 1.4 2.8 21.2 19.7 0.910 ± 0.163 74.0 ± 15.1
   5 – 10 years 6.1 1.9 4.0 25.1 19.4 0.901 ± 0.170 73.3 ± 15.6
  > 10 years 10.5a 3.4a 6.3a 28.9a 21.6b 0.881 ± 0.186a 72.7 ± 16.1a
HbA1c              
< 7.0 % 7.4 2.3 4.3 24.8 20.6 0.897 ± 0.173 74.1 ± 15.1
≥ 7.0 % 6.6 2.2 4.4 24.8 19.9 0.898 ± 0.174 72.8 ± 15.9a
BMI              
< 25 kg/m2 5.9 2.3 4.0 23.3 21.0 0.900 ± 0.170 73.7 ± 15.3
≥ 25 kg/m2 7.7a 1.9 4.3 26.0a 19.7b 0.898 ± 0.169 73.1 ± 15.7b
Hypertension              
   No 2.3 1.1 2.0 23.6 21.4 0.902 ± 0.175 73.4 ± 15.3
   Yes 8.2a 2.5a 4.9a 25.2 20.1 0.896 ± 0.173 73.3 ± 15.7
Dyslipidaemia              
   No 5.9 2.2 4.3 25.1 22.3 0.897 ± 0.167 73.6 ± 15.3
   Yes 7.3 b 2.3 4.3 24.8 20.0b 0.897 ± 0.174 73.3 ± 15.6
Nephropathy              
   No 3.9 1.3 2.5 22.8 19.5 0.909 ± 0.160 74.1 ± 15.2
   Yes 12.0a 3.7a 7.2a 27.9a 21.5‡ 0.879 ± 0.190a 72.2 ± 16.2a
Retinopathy              
   No 6.4 2.0 3.9 24.7 19.9 0.899 ± 0.172 73.6 ± 15.4
   Yes 9.0a 3.0a 5.6a 25.4 21.4b 0.891 ± 0.176 c 72.6 ± 16.0a
Sensory neuropathy              
No 6.3 1.9 3.9 24.3 20 0.901 ± 0.168 73.4 ± 15.5
Yes 23.3a 8.6a 13.7a 35.9a 27.2a 0.815 ± 0.249a 71.2 ± 17.4a
Cardiovascular disease              
   No 5.1 1.2 2.8 23.5 19.6 0.905 ± 0.162 73.8 ± 15.5
   Yes 18.3a 7.4a 12.0a 28.1a 22.1‡ 0.861 ± 0.211a 71.9 ± 16.6a
Hypoglycaemiad              
< once/month 6.9 2.2 4.2 24.0 19.4 0.901 ± 0.171 73.6 ± 15.5
≥ once/month 9.7a 2.5 6.1c 34.6a 29.5a 0.858 ± 0.197a 70.8 ± 16.4a
Use of insulin              
   No 6.9 2.2 4.3 25.2 20.2 0.897 ± 0.174 73.7 ± 15.5
   Yes 8.2 2.4 4.4 21.8c 21.7 0.902 ± 0.166 70.3 ± 16.3a
Adherence to balanced diete              
   No 6.2 1.8 3.8 25.6 21.1 0.897 ± 0.172 71.4 ± 16.1
   Yes 8.0a 2.7a 4.9a 24.3 19.5b 0.897 ± 0.174 73.5 ± 15.5a
Physical exercisee              
< 3times/ week 7.9 2.8 5.4 25.2 21.0 0.892 ± 0.183 71.9 ± 15.7
≥ 3tiems / week 6.4a 1.6a 3.3a 24.6 19.5b 0.903 ± 0.163a 74.8 ± 15.3a
SMBGe              
< once/month 5.7 1.8 3.3 23.7 20.3 0.901 ± 0.171 73.2 ± 15.8
≥ once/month 8.0a 2.6c 5.0a 25.5c 20.3 0.895 ± 0.175a 73.5 ± 15.5
SMBG: Self Monitoring of Blood Glucose; BMI: Body Mass Index.
ap < 0.001, bp < 0.01, cp < 0.05, dSelf-reported hypoglycemia within the previous 3 months.
eAdherence to lifestyle factors within the previous 3 months
Table 2: Percentages of patients with problems in each of the five dimensions of EQ-5D, EQ-5D index and VAS, stratified by clinical characteristics.