Odd ratio (95% confidence interval)
Mobility Self-care Usual activities Pain/discomfort Anxiety/depression
Age (10 years) 1.77(1.65-1.91)a 1.72(1.52-1.96)a 1.56(1.43-1.70)a 1.15(1.10-1.20)a 0.96(0.91-1.00) c
Female gender 1.67(1.45-1.93)a 1.39(1.08-1.77) b 1.65(1.38-1.96)a 1.80(1.65-1.96)a 1.83(1.67-2.00)a
Disease duration, years 1.01(1.00-1.02)c 1.01(0.99-1.02) 1.00(0.99-1.01) 1.01(1.00-1.01)c 1.00(0.99-1.00)
Higher education 0.87(0.68-1.09) 0.76(0.49-1.16) 0.75(0.55-1.01) 0.92(0.81-1.04) 0.92(0.81-1.04)
Obesity 1.44(1.25-1.67)a 0.88(0.69-1.12) - 1.27(1.16-1.38)a 0.94(0.86-1.03)
Hypertension 1.38(1.03-1.84)c 0.85(0.54-1.34) 1.04(0.75-1.43) 0.85(0.76-0.96)b -
Dyslipidemia 0.81(0.65-1.02) - - - 0.81(0.71-0.93)b
Use insulin 0.90(0.72-1.14) - - - -
HbA1c - - - - 1.03(1.00-1.06)c
Hypoglycemia at least monthly 1.38(1.10-1.73)b - 1.31(1.00-1.72)c 1.70(1.48-1.95)a 1.65(1.43-1.91)a
Nephropathy 1.72(1.48-2.01)a 1.52(1.16-1.99)b 1.73(1.44-2.09)a 1.09(1.00-1.20) 1.02(0.93-1.13)
Neuropathy 2.48(1.99-3.09)a 2.16(1.54-3.02)a 2.06(1.59-2.68)a 1.54(1.29-1.83)a 1.50(1.25-1.81)a
Diabetic retinopathy 1.03(0.89-1.20) 1.14(0.89-1.47) 1.04(0.87-1.25) - 1.07(0.96-1.18)
Cardiovascular disease 2.46(2.12-2.85)a 4.08(3.15-5.28) 2.99(2.50-3.58)a 1.14(1.03-1.26)b 1.26(1.13-1.41)a
ap < 0.001, bp < 0.01, cp < 0.05
“–“ Not being entered into multivariate regression model (univarate regression P>0.1)
Table 3: Factors associated with problems in each EQ5D dimension using multivariate logistic regression.