ORc 95% CI p value ORa 95% CI p value
Age 55-74 (vs <55 years-old) 1.27 1.23-1.30 <0.001 1.47 1.43-1.52 <0.001
Age ≥75 (vs <55 years-old) 1.53 1.48-1.57 <0.001 1.89 1.83-1.96 <0.001
Male Sex (vs female) 0.97 0.95-0.98 <0.001 0.99 0.97-1.01 0.340
Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) 0.87 0.87-0.91 <0.001 0.84 0.83-0.86 <0.001
Hypertension 1.16 1.14-1.80 <0.001 1.19 1.17-1.22 <0.001
Current Smoker 0.83 0.81-0.85 <0.001 0.91 0.88-0.94 <0.001
Diabetes Duration 3-5 years (vs ≤2 years) 0.59 0.58-0.61 <0.001 0.66 0.64-0.68 <0.001
Diabetes Duration 6-10 years (vs ≤2 years) 0.45 0.43-0.46 <0.001 0.53 0.52-0.55 <0.001
Diabetes Duration >10 years (vs ≤2 years) 0.33 0.32-0.34 <0.001 0.44 0.42-0.45 <0.001
LDL-Cholesterol control 1.02 0.99-1.03 0.120 1.30 1.27-1.32 <0.001
Any macrovascular complication 0.94 0.92-0.96 <0.001 1.11 1.08-1.14 <0.001
Heart Failure 0.99 0.96-1.04 0.898 1.07 1.02-1.13 0.003
Nephropathy
Microalbuminuria
Macroalbuminuria

0.63
0.56

0.62-0.65
0.52-0.61

<0.001
<0.001

0.71
0.66

0.69-0.74
0.61-0.72

<0.001
<0.001
eGFR 30-59 (vs ≥60) 1.11 1.08-1.14 <0.001 1.21 1.18-1.25 <0.001
eGFR <30 (vs ≥60) 1.29 1.19-1.41 <0.001 2.17 1.97-2.39 <0.001
Model 1: Glycaemic-lowering treatments (vs. Metformin)
Lifestyle Only 4.80 4.66-4.95 <0.001 4.48 4.35-4.62 <0.001
Sulfonylureas 0.66 0.64-0.67 <0.001 0.66 0.64-0.67 <0.001
Glitazones 0.80 0.73-0.88 <0.001 0.87 0.79-0.95 <0.001
Glinides 0.58 0.55-0.61 <0.001 0.55 0.52-0.59 <0.001
Insulin 0.33 0.32-0.34 <0.001 0.33 0.32-0.34 <0.001
Other (AlphaGlucosidase inhibitors, DPP4 Inhibitors, Exenatide) 0.86 0.80-0.93 <0.001 0.86 0.80-0.93 <0.001
Model 2: Glycaemic-lowering steps of treatment (vs. lifestyle changes only)
Oral antidiabetic monotherapy 0.29 0.29-0.30 <0.001 0.30 0.29-0.30 <0.001
Combined oral antidiabetics 0.11 0.11-0.11 <0.001 0.12 0.11-0.12 <0.001
Oral antidiabetic drug + Insulin 0.05 0.05-0.06 <0.001 0.05 0.05-0.06 <0.001
Insulin monotherapy 0.08 0.08-0.08 <0.001 0.08 0.75-0.82 <0.001
cOR: Crude Odds Ratio; aOR Adjusted Odds Ratio; CI95%: Confidence Interval 95%; eGFR (MDRD): Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate * Adjusted for: age, sex, BMI, hypertension, LDL-cholesterol control (<100 mg/dl in secondary prevention; <130 mg/dl in primary prevention), macrovascular disease, heart failure, renal function, presence of nephropathy and current smoking habit
Table 4: Multivariate analysis: Variables associated with good glycaemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7%; ≤53 mmol/mol)*.